Hong Kong

Hong Kong Travel Guide

Hong Kong (Cantonese: Hong Kong; Hong Kong; Hong Kong; Mandarin Pinyin: xiāng gǎng; abbreviation: HK ), referred to as "Hong Kong", full name of the People's Republic of China Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Located in the south of China , east of the Pearl River estuary , the South China Sea coast, north of Shenzhen City , Guangdong Province , west of the Pearl River , with the Macao Special Administrative Region, Zhuhai City and Zhongshan City across the Pearl River estuary, the other two sides adjacent to the South China Sea.

Hong Kong is a highly prosperous international metropolis , the whole territory of the Hong Kong Island , Kowloon Peninsula , the New Territories three major regions, etc., under the jurisdiction of the total land area of 1104.32 square kilometers, by the end of 2014, with a total population of about 726.4 million people, the population density is among the world's third.

Hong Kong has been China's territory since ancient times. 1842 - In 1997, Hong Kong was a British colony. After World War II, Hong Kong's rapid economic and social development, not only known as the " Asian four dragons " one of the world's richest, the most economically developed and one of the highest standards of living. On July 1, 1997, the People's Republic of China formally resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The central government has full control over Hong Kong, Hong Kong maintains its original capitalist system and way of life, and enjoys a high degree of autonomy in all matters outside of diplomatic and defense. " One country , two systems " and " Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong ", a high degree of autonomy is the basic national policy of the Chinese government. [1-4] 

Hong Kong is the world's third largest financial center , Asia's important financial , service and shipping center, with New York, London and known as " Nureon Port ", is one of the world's freest economies and one of the most competitive cities in the world High reputation. [5-7] 

Hong Kong is a blend of Chinese and Western cultures, the Chinese wisdom and the advantages of Western social system combined into a clean government, good law and order, free economic system and perfect legal system known, " Pearl of the Orient " " Food paradise " and " shopping paradise " and other reputation. [7-8] 

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Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Photographer Andy Yeung spent a full two months on aerial photography to showcase the high-rise buildings in Hong Kong's Sheung Wan, Wan Chai and Sham Shui Po districts.

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Content finishing: Encyclopedia of hot words team

  • Chinese name

  • Hong Kong 

  • Foreign language name

  • Hong Kong

  • Alias

  • Xiangjiang , Hong Island

  • Administrative category

  • Special Administrative Region

  • district belong to

  • China South China

  • Under the jurisdiction of the area

  • Hong Kong Island , Kowloon Peninsula , New Territories

  • Government resident

  • Hong Kong Island in the West Tim Tam Tim Road on the 2nd

  • Phone area code

  • +852

  • Zip code

  • 999077

  • Location

  • The southeast of the Pearl River Delta , the east coast of the Pearl River estuary

  • Area

  • 1104.43 square kilometers

  • Population

  • 7.31 million (2015) [9] 

  • Dialect

  • Cantonese hanbao piece Wai words and home , Hakka, etc. [10]

  • Climatic conditions

  • Subtropical monsoon climate

  • famous scenery

  • Victoria Harbour , Hong Kong Disneyland , Ocean Park , Madame Tussauds Hong Kong , etc.

  • Airport

  • Hongkong International Airport

  • TRAIN STATION

  • Hung Hom Station , West Kowloon Terminus and so on

  • License plate code

  • Guangdong Z (into the Mainland)

  • Institutions of higher learning

  • University of Hong Kong , Chinese University of Hong Kong , etc.

  • Time zone

  • GMT +8 ( Beijing time )

  • Currency

  • HK $ (HK $)

  • GDP

  • $ 309 billion (2015, international exchange rate ) [9]

  • Per capita GDP

  • $ 42423 (2015, international exchange rate)

  • Human Development Index

  • 0.891 (very high, 2014 global 15)

  • Gini Coefficient

  • 0. 475 (2013)

  • Road access

  • Drive left

  • foreign exchange reserves

  • $ 399 billion (at the end of 2013)

  • Area code

  • HKG

  • official language

  • Chinese - Cantonese (Cantonese), English

  • political system

  • Executive - led representative democracy

  • Legal System

  • Common Law

  • First chief executive

  • Tung Chee-hwa

  • The current Chief Executive

  • Liang Zhenying

table of Contents

  1. 1 History

  2. 2 zoning

  3. 3 Geographical environment

  4. ▪ Location domain

  5. ▪ Topography

  6. ▪ Climate

  7. ▪ River

  8. 4 Natural resources

  9. ▪ Marine resources

  1. ▪ Mineral resources

  2. 5 politics

  3. ▪ Basic policy

  4. ▪ Administrative system

  5. ▪ Organizational structure

  6. ▪ District flag emblem

  7. The system

  8. ▪ Foreign Affairs

  9. 6 population

  10. 7 Economy

  1. ▪ Summary

  2. ▪ Finance

  3. ▪ travel

  4. ▪ Foreign trade

  5. 8 society

  6. ▪ Urban architecture

  7. ▪ Education

  8. ▪ Entertainment media

  9. ▪ Social order

  10. 9 traffic

  1. ▪ City traffic

  2. ▪ Joint traffic

  3. 10 culture

  4. 11 food

  5. 12 travel

  6. 13 people


History


Hong Kong Victoria Harbor

Hong Kong Victoria Harbor

Neolithic , Hong Kong has a human activity.

Qin Shihuang unified China, in 214 BC (Qin Shi Huang thirty years), the Chinese Qin Dynasty sent troops to settle down Baiyao , home Nanhai County , the Hong Kong area into its territory , is under the jurisdiction of Panyu County . From this point on, Hong Kong will be placed under the jurisdiction of the central government, clearly became the Central Plains dynasty territory (narrow sense of the Central Plains , refers to this Henan area. Broad sense of the Central Plains, refers to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River region), from this time until the Qing Dynasty, With the Central Plains civilization southward broadcast, the Hong Kong region to gradually develop. [11] 

Hong Kong Place Names in

Hong Kong Place Names in

Han Dynasty Hong Kong belongs to Nanhai County Boluo County .

Dongjiang salty and six years (AD 331) Hong Kong belongs to Dongguan County Baoan County . Dongjiang into imperial salty and six years will be the eastern part of the South China Sea to draw, and set up a Dongguan County , under the jurisdiction of Baoan, Xingning, Haifeng and other six counties. Baoan County jurisdiction, including today's Hong Kong and Shenzhen, Dongguan City, the county is today's Shenzhen Nantou City.

The Sui Dynasty and waste Dongguan County, the jurisdiction will be incorporated into the Guangzhou House Nanhai County, Baoan County has also been attached to the South China Sea County, Hong Kong is still owned by Baoan County management.

Tang Dynasty to Germany two years (AD 757 years), change Baoan County for Dongguan County , Hong Kong is still under the Dongguan County.

During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the mainland population moved to Hong Kong in a large amount to promote the economic and cultural development of Hong Kong. In the Yuan Dynasty, when the Yuan Dynasty was in Jiangxi Province , in the Yuan Dynasty, in Tuen Mun southwest of Hong Kong , there was a patrol department in Tuen Mun , outside Hong Kong , and the garrison was deployed to prevent pirates from invading and guarding the Guangzhou area.

Hong Kong Song Wang Tai

Hong Kong Song Wang Tai

Ming Dynasty Wanli years from Dongguan County to set up some places to set up Xin'an County , for the later Hong Kong area. Hong Kong Island has been the first year of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1573), until the Qing Xuanzong Daoguang 21 years (AD 1841) to become the British colonial so far, the region has been under the jurisdiction of the Guangzhou Xin'an County .

The Qing Dynasty sent troops to the New Territories in 1662 and ordered the villagers to keep their braids. Hong Kong has played an important role in foreign trade in the Qing Dynasty because Hong Kong was geographically dependent on Guangzhou, and Guangzhou was the only commercial port opened in the Qing Dynasty . [12] 

Before the British occupation of Hong Kong, Hong Kong is basically a desert island, the southern part of the island Stanley , Tai Tam Tou and Shek Pai Wan , the eastern part of the Amang rock , wells, etc., there are some fishermen living. Other yellow mud Chung, lights on the continent, seven sisters and so on, there are some small village, when the island residents about 3,000 people [12]  . The British had fancy to Hong Kong's Victoria Harbor as a potential port in East Asia. Until the late 19th century, after the defeat of the Qing dynasty, the field was ceded and leased to England as a British colony .

On January 26, 1841, after the first Opium War , the British forced Hong Kong Island , after the Qing government tried to use force to recover, Daoguang emperor issued a multi-channel decree, but the Qing Dynasty can not defend the territorial integrity [3]  .

The Qing government was forced to sign the

The Qing government was forced to sign the "Treaty of Nanjing" on British ships,

August 29, 1842, the Qing government and the United Kingdom signed an unequal " Treaty of Nanjing " (formerly known as " Jiangning Treaty "), ceded Hong Kong Island to the United Kingdom [3]  .

October 24, 1860, China and Britain signed an unequal " Beijing Treaty ", ceded the Kowloon Peninsula Boundary Street south of the United Kingdom [3]  .

June 9, 1898, the British forced the Qing government signed the " extension of the Hong Kong boundary special " (commonly known as " New Territories lease" [13] ), forced to rent the Kowloon Peninsula Boundary Street to the north, north of the Shenzhen River area, and 200 Many sizes of islands, lease period of 99 years (to the end of June 30, 1997) [3]  . Through three treaties, the United Kingdom occupies a total of 1092 square kilometers of Chinese territory, including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories, which is now the area of Hong Kong. [13] 

December 25, 1941 (Hong Kong people known as the "Black Christmas Day" [14]  ), during the Second World War , the Japanese invaded Hong Kong, the British forces unable to resist, then the Hong Kong Governor Yang Muqi reluctantly announced surrender . Hong Kong was occupied by Japan, began three years and eight months of the "Japanese rule" [3]  .

September 15, 1945, after the defeat of Japan in Hong Kong signed a book, withdrew from Hong Kong, Hong Kong was re-governed by the British [3]  .

The signing ceremony of the Sino - British Joint Statement

The signing ceremony of the Sino - British Joint Statement

After the Second World War, Hong Kong's economy and society developed rapidly, becoming the third largest financial center in the world after New York and London. Not only become one of the " Asian four dragons ", but also Asian financial, service and shipping center.

From 1982 to 1984, China and Britain negotiated the implementation of the future of Hong Kong. On December 19, 1984, the " Joint Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Hong Kong " was decided. The People 's Republic of China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong. The Chinese side promised to implement " one country, two systems " in Hong Kong .

On July 1, 1997, the Chinese government resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the commencement of the Basic Law. Hong Kong has entered a new era of " one country , two systems ", " Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong " and a high degree of autonomy [15]  .

Hong Kong regime handover ceremony

Hong Kong regime handover ceremony

In September 1997, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Annual Meeting were held in Hong Kong. The annual conference was the first major international conference hosted by Hong Kong after its return to the motherland, and the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) held its first annual meeting in China [16]  .

In 1998 , the Hong Kong stock market experienced great volatility due to the Asian financial crisis . With the strong support of the central government, the HKSAR Government has decided to counter the international speculators, and the Hong Kong Monetary Authority has invested heavily in the stock and futures markets to fight back speculators [16]  .

Early 2003, Hong Kong outbreak of " SARS " outbreak. The SAR Government has led the community to devote all its efforts to epidemic control. The epidemic has been controlled for several months. On 23 June, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the official removal of Hong Kong from the SARS epidemic area [16]  .

June 2003, signed by the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA). The central government subsequently launched the " Individual Tour " program for mainland residents to go to Hong Kong [16]  .

"Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement"

In November 2003, the People's Bank of China (PBOC) announced its agreement to provide clearing arrangements for Hong Kong banks to handle four types of personal renminbi business (ie, deposits, exchange, remittance and renminbi bank cards) in Hong Kong. In February 2004, Hong Kong banks officially opened RMB business [16]  .

At the beginning of June 2004, the first " Pan-Pearl River Delta Regional Cooperation and Development Forum" was held in Hong Kong, and the "9 + 2" regional economic cooperation in 9 provinces and Hong Kong and Macao regions in the Mainland was officially launched [16]  .

In September 2005, Hong Kong Disneyland opened the welcoming, which is the world's fifth Disneyland [16]  .

In August 2008, the Beijing Olympic Equestrian Events were successfully held in Hong Kong [17]  .

Opening Ceremony of the 5th East Asian Games

Opening Ceremony of the 5th East Asian Games

In December 2009, the 5th East Asian Games was held in Hong Kong, which was the first international event to be undertaken after Hong Kong's return to the motherland [17] .

In March 2011, the Central Committee announced the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", Hong Kong and Macao part of the first separate chapter. The outline points out that consolidating and enhancing Hong Kong's status as an international financial, trade and shipping center supports Hong Kong as an international asset management center and offshore renminbi business center [17]  .


Zoning


Administrative divisions of the HKSAR

Administrative divisions of the HKSAR

Hong Kong Island : Central and Western District , Wan Chai District , Eastern District , Southern District

Kowloon Peninsula : Yau Tsim Mong District , Sham Shui Po District , Kowloon City District , Wong Tai Sin District , Kwun Tong District

New Territories : North District , Tai Po District , Sha Tin District , Sai Kung District , Tsuen Wan District , Tuen Mun District , Yuen Long District , Kwai Tsing District , Islands District


Geographical environment



Location domain

Hong Kong's geographical coordinates are 114 ° 15 'east longitude, 22 ° 15' north latitude, located in the south China coast, east of the Pearl River estuary in Guangdong Province , China , from Hong Kong Island , Kowloon Peninsula , the New Territories inland areas and 262 islands (Islands) The Hong Kong north of Shenzhen City , Guangdong Province , south of Guangdong Province, Zhuhai City Wanshan Islands . Hong Kong and the west of Macau across the sea, the distance of 61 km, 130 km north of Guangzhou, 1200 km from Shanghai. [3] 

The three major sections of Hong Kong are about 81 square kilometers of Hong Kong Island ; about 47 square kilometers in Kowloon; and about 976 square kilometers in the New Territories and 262 outlying islands. Hong Kong has a total jurisdiction of 2755.03 square kilometers, of which land area of 1104.32 square kilometers, water area of 1650.64 square kilometers. [18] 


topography

Google map shows Hong Kong

Google map shows Hong Kong

Hong Kong terrain is mainly hills, the highest point is 958 meters above sea level Tai Mo Shan. There are about half of the land in Hong Kong. About 20% of the land is in the lowlands, mainly in the northern part of the New Territories. They are the Yuen Long Plain and the Fanling Lowlands. They are alluvial plains formed by the rivers. The second is located in the Kowloon Peninsula and the northern part of Hong Kong Island. From the original narrow land outside the expansion of reclamation land. Although one is taken from Hong Kong Island, the largest island in Hong Kong is Lantau Island, which is twice as large as Hong Kong Island. [19] 


climate

Victoria Harbor

Victoria Harbor

Hong Kong is a subtropical climate , the annual high temperature, the average annual temperature of 22.8 ℃. Summer is hot and humid, the temperature is about 27 ~ 33 ℃; winter cool and dry, but rarely fell below 5 ℃. 5-9 month rainy, sometimes rain is quite large. Between summer and autumn, there are typhoons, 7-9 month is the season of more typhoons in Hong Kong, but from 5 to 11 during the period may be subject to different intensity of tropical cyclone. In the western North Pacific, the East China Sea and the South China Sea, an average of 30 tropical cyclones are formed each year, half of which reach typhoon intensity and a maximum wind speed of 118 km / h or more. The average annual rainfall in Hong Kong is 2214.3 millimeters, and the maximum monthly rainfall is August. The minimum monthly rainfall is January. [20]  In addition, Hong Kong urban high-rise concentrated and densely populated, densely populated, the formation of micro-climate easily produce heat island effect, resulting in urban and suburban areas have significant differences in temperature, high-rise buildings in the urban area of the air "suspended particles "More difficult to blow away. [twenty one] 


Water system


Hong Kong

Hong Kong (5 photos)

Hong Kong is in a humid subtropical environment, abundant in flow and rich in surface water. But the scope of the role of limited water, no rivers. In addition to the Shenzhen River as the river and the Shenzhen River, there are mainly Shing Mun River, Indus River, Lin Village River, Yuen Long River and Kam Tin River, the vast majority of rivers are not more than 5 miles in length, flow and flow and seasonal rainfall Closely related, very unstable during the year. Dry season is difficult to maintain water or flow, river bed exposed or part of the exposed, wet season is easy to reach the full shore water level, flooding. Shenzhen River originated in the Wutongshan cattle tail ridge, from northeast to southwest into Shenzhen Bay, out of Lingdingyang. A total length of 37 km, the basin area of 312.5㎞², of which Shenzhen side of 187.5㎞², Hong Kong side of the 125㎞². The Indus River in Hong Kong is the main tributary of the Shenzhen River.



Natural resources



Marine resources


Hong Kong

Hong Kong (4 photos)

Hong Kong faces the South China Sea, adjacent to the continental shelf , extensive ocean, many islands. There is a geographical environment for fishery production. Hong Kong has more than 150 kinds of commercial value of marine fish, mainly red shirt, nine sticks, big eyes fish, croaker, yellow belly and squid. [18] 



mineral resources

As of the end of 2013, proven mineral deposits have a small amount of iron , aluminum , zinc , tungsten , beryl , graphite and so on. [11] 


political



Basic policy

Hong Kong in 1997 to return to the embrace of the motherland

Hong Kong in 1997 to return to the embrace of the motherland

In the early 1980s, for the peaceful reunification of the country, Deng Xiaoping, the national leader, creatively put forward the scientific concept of " one country, two systems " and used it first to solve the problem of Hong Kong. According to Deng Xiaoping's theory, "one country, two systems" means that under the premise of one China, the main body of the country insists on the socialist system , and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan maintain the original capitalist system for a long time [15]  .

After Hong Kong's return to the motherland, "one country, two systems" has become a vivid reality from a scientific vision. The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall exercise a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the law , enjoy administrative power, legislative power, independent judicial power and the right of final adjudication of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in accordance with the law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , Continue to maintain the original capitalist system and the same way of life, the law basically unchanged, continue to maintain prosperity and stability, the comprehensive development of various undertakings [15]  .

The basic policy of the People's Republic of China on Hong Kong is as follows [22]  :

(1) In order to safeguard the unity and territorial integrity of the State and take into account the historical and real conditions of Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China has decided to establish the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China when the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong is resumed.

(2) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall go through the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. In addition to diplomatic and defense affairs is the central people's government management, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region enjoys a high degree of autonomy.

Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

(3) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall enjoy administrative power, legislative power, independent judicial power and final adjudication power. The current law is basically the same.

(4) The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be composed of local people. The Chief Executive is appointed locally by election or consultation and appointed by the Central People's Government. The principal officials are nominated by the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and appointed by the Central People's Government. In the Hong Kong government departments in the foreign official, police officers can be retained. The Government departments of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may employ British or other expatriates as consultants or certain public offices.

(5) The current social and economic system of Hong Kong remains unchanged; the way of life is the same. The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall protect the rights and freedoms of person, speech, publication, assembly, association, travel, migration, communication, strikes, career and academic research, and religious beliefs. Private property, corporate ownership, legal inheritance and foreign investment are protected by law.

(6) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will maintain its status as a free port and an independent customs territory.

(7) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will maintain its position as an international financial center and continue to open markets such as foreign exchange, gold, securities and futures. Hong Kong dollars continue to flow, free convertible.

(8) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will maintain financial independence. The Central People's Government does not tax the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

(9) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may establish mutually beneficial economic relations with the United Kingdom and other countries. The economic interests of the United Kingdom and other countries in Hong Kong will be taken care of.

(10) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may maintain and develop economic and cultural relations with countries, regions and relevant international organizations in the name of "Hong Kong, China" and sign the relevant agreements.

The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may issue travel documents to and from Hong Kong.

(11) The social security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be maintained by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

(12) With regard to the basic principles and policies of the People's Republic of China on Hong Kong and the specific principles of the above basic principles and policies in Annex 1 of this Joint Statement, the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China will be prescribed by the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and In fifty years unchanged. [twenty two] 


Administrative system

Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR)

Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR)

Hong Kong has implemented an executive-led governance model and has developed a governance system and a representative constitutional framework led by the Chief Executive and the Executive Council .

The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the head of the Special Administrative Region, representing the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and is accountable to the Central People's Government and to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region [23]  . The Chief Executive is elected by a broadly representative Election Committee under the Basic Law and appointed by the Central People's Government. The Chief Executive is responsible for the implementation of the Basic Law , the signing of bills and the Budget, the enactment of legislation, the decision of government policies and the promulgation of administrative orders, and the Executive Council to assist in the formulation of policies. Hong Kong's first Chief Executive is Tung Chee-hwa . On July 1, 2012, Mr Leung Chun-ying officially served as the Chief Executive of Hong Kong. [twenty four] 

In August 2014, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress passed a decision on the general election of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the 2016 Legislative Council approach [25]  .


Organization

The SAR Government

Hong Kong permanent residents of the HKSAR Government in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Basic Law, composed of Administration, Department of Finance, Department of Justice, and various bureaux, divisions and commissions, exercise policy development and implementation of the Basic Law, administrative affairs and other terms of reference [23]  The

The Chief Executive is the head of the Government of the Special Administrative Region and is responsible for the implementation of the Basic Law and other powers under the authority of the Government of the Special Administrative Region under the Basic Law . [23] 

job titledepartment

Chief Executive

Civil Service Commission, Ombudsman Office , ICAC , Audit, Central Policy Unit (Strategy Development Committee Secretariat ), Chief Executive's Office

Chief Secretary for Administration

Office of the Chief Secretary for Administration (Administration Department) (Government Secretariat, Government Chief, Office of the Chief Executive), Efficiency Promotion Unit (1823 Call Center), Policy and Project Co-ordination Office)


Civil Service Bureau : Joint Secretariat of the Advisory Committee on Civil Service and Judicial Salaries and Conditions of Service

Political and Mainland Affairs Bureau : Registration and Electoral Office , Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government Office in Beijing, Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office (Mainland), Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office

Education Bureau (Public Welfare Youth League): University Education Grants Committee Secretariat, Student Financial Assistance Agency

Environment Bureau (Sustainable Development Section): Environmental Protection Agency

Food and Health Bureau : Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Department of Health (CHP, Tobacco Control Office, Department of Health), Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (Food Safety Center), Government Laboratory

Home Affairs Bureau : Home Affairs Department, Information Services Department, Legal Aid Department (Legal Representative Office), Leisure and Cultural Services Department (Antiquities and Monuments Office, Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra)

Labor and Welfare Bureau : Labor Department, Social Welfare Department (Entrepreneurship)

Security Service (Narcotics Division): Auxiliary Medical Service, Civil Aid Service, Correctional Services Department, Customs and Excise Department, Hong Kong Fire Services Department, Government Flying Service Team, Hong Kong Police Force (Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force), Immigration Department, Interception of Communications and Office of the Ombudsman

Transport and Housing Bureau : Civil Aviation Department, Highways Department, Housing Department, Marine Department, Transport Department

Financial Secretary

Office of the Financial Secretary (Economic Analysis and Business Facilitation), Hong Kong Monetary Authority


Business and Economic Development Bureau (Commerce, Industry and Tourism Branch> Tourism Commission> Travel Agents Registry, Communications and Creative Industries Branch): Hong Kong Observatory, Intellectual Property Department, Invest Hong Kong, Communications Office (Film, Newspaper and Articles Management Office), Post Office, Radio Television Hong Kong, Trade and Industry Department, Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices (Overseas)

Innovation and Technology [26]  : Innovation and Technology, Office of Government Chief Information Officer

Development Bureau : Architectural Services Department, Buildings Department, Civil Engineering and Development Department, Drainage Services Department, Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Lands Department, Land Registry, Planning Department, Water Supplies Department

Financial Services and Finance Bureau (Financial Services Branch) (Insider Dealing Tribunal, Securities and Futures Appeals Tribunal), Treasury Branch): Census and Statistics Department, Corporate Registry, Government Logistics Department, Government Property Agency, Inland Revenue Department (The Tax Appeals Board), the Insurance Authority, the Official Receiver's Office, the Rating and Valuation Department, the Treasury

Secretary for Justice

The Attorney General [27] 

legislature

The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the legislature of the Special Administrative Region and is elected and exercised under the Basic Law, including the enactment, modification and repeal of the law in accordance with the provisions of the Basic Law and in accordance with the statutory procedures. According to the Government's proposal, the audit, through the budget; Public expenditure [23]  .

The fifth Legislative Council of Hong Kong consists of 70 Members, of which 35 are directly elected by district and the remaining 35 Members are elected by functional constituencies. The election of the Fifth Legislative Council was held on September 9, 2012. According to " The Basic Law (Cap 542), the fifth term of office of the Legislative Council" and the "Legislative Council Ordinance" starting from October 1, 2012, for a period of four years. The chairman of the Legislative Council is elected by a member of the Legislative Council. The term of office of the Sixth Legislative Council shall come from October 1, 2016. The sixth session of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) is the same as that of the fifth [28]  .

The judiciary

Hong Kong Government Organization Chart

Hong Kong Government Organization Chart

The courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region at all levels are the judicial organs of the Special Administrative Region and exercise their jurisdiction independently. After the establishment of the Special Administrative Region , the Court of Final Appeal shall exercise the right of final adjudication of the Special Administrative Region. The judicial system originally implemented in Hong Kong shall be retained in addition to the changes arising from the establishment of the Court of Final Appeal. The common law and relevant judicial principles and systems originally implemented in Hong Kong, including the principle of independent trial, follow the principle of precedent and the principle of jury system [23]  .

The courts of the Special Administrative Region have no jurisdiction over national acts such as national defense and foreign affairs, and have jurisdiction over all cases in the Special Administrative Region, in addition to continuing the restrictions on the jurisdiction of the courts in accordance with the original legal system and principles of Hong Kong. The courts of the Special Administrative Region may refer to the judicial jurisprudence of other common law jurisdictions when the case is tried. The Court of Final Appeal may invite judges of other common law jurisdictions to participate in the trial as required. [twenty three] 

ICAC

The ICAC, formerly known as the "Independent Commission Against Corruption", was formed on 17 February 1974 and is now renamed the "Independent Commission Against Corruption of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". The ICAC is composed of the Commissioner, the Deputy Commissioner and other appointed officers [29]  .

The Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) is an independent anti-corruption agency that is separated from all government agencies. The staff of the ICAC are not affiliated with the Government Civil Service. The chief Commissioner of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) is directly responsible to the Chief Executive of the Government and is only responsible to him. Article 57 of the Basic Law deals fully with all anti-corruption work in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. [29-30] 


District flag emblem

Hong Kong's flag and district emblem

Hong Kong's flag and district emblem

Flag of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) flag is red, and the red and white colors symbolize one country, two systems. There is a white bauhinia flower pattern in the center. The Bauhinia is a symbol of Hong Kong. The blooming Bauhinia symbolizes the prosperity of Hong Kong. The background symbolizes that Hong Kong will always be backed by the motherland. [31] 

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Region Emblem

Emblem of Hong Kong round, except around the words " Hong Kong SAR People's Republic of China " and " HONGKONG standard word" outside, white on red star in the middle is the bauhinia flower pistil pattern, meaning the same as the regional flag. [32] 


Xun system

Hong Kong honors and awards system

General honor

Hong Kong's highest honor - Grand Bauhinia Medal

Hong Kong's highest honor - Grand Bauhinia Medal

Bauhinia Medallion , Gold Bauhinia Star , Silver Bauhinia Star , Bronze Bauhinia Star , Medal of Honor , Chief Executive Community Service Award , Chief Executive's Public Service Certificate

Heroic honor

Jin Yingyong Medal , Silver Yingyong Medal , Bronze Brave Medal

Force honors

Excellence Medal , Medal of Honor , Long Service Medal

Long service medal first clasps, awarded to the character and good behavior, service for 25 years, during the performance of the various forces of personnel.

Long service medal second clasps, awarded to the character and good behavior, service for 30 years, during the performance of the various forces of personnel.

Long service medal third accompan clasp, awarded to the character and good behavior, service for 33 years, during the performance of the various forces of personnel.


Foreign Affairs

China Hong Kong Olympic delegation held a flag ceremony

China Hong Kong Olympic delegation held a flag ceremony

According to " the HKSAR Basic Law by" all the foreign affairs Central People's Government is responsible. The Central People's Government authorizes the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to handle its own external affairs. Hong Kong can maintain and develop relations with countries, regions and relevant international organizations in the name of "Hong Kong, China" in the fields of economy, trade , finance , shipping , communication , tourism , culture and sports. , Signed and fulfilled the agreement. Hong Kong 's participation in international organizations , including the World Trade Organization , the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , the Asian Development Bank , the International Settlement Bank , the International Olympic Committee , a total of 14. [18] 

The Chinese side resolutely opposes any foreign interference in Hong Kong affairs in any way [33]  .


population


Hong Kong's population density has risen every year. According to official figures in 2011, Hong Kong's population density is third in the world. As of mid-2014, Hong Kong total

Hong Kong night view

Hong Kong night view (5 photos)

 The population of about 7234800 people, compared with the same period in 2013 increased 47,300 people, compared with the middle of 2004 increased by 451300 people more. Most of the people of Hong Kong live in high-rise buildings . Over the past 10 years, more than 30 to 40 residential buildings have been built. Some of them have more than 70 floors and commercial buildings up to about 100. Moreover, a family of four people can only live or have a space in the area of 400 to 1000 square feet (about 37.2 to 74.3 square meters, 12.3 to 30.7 pings ). For this reason, Hong Kong still retains a large number of undeveloped rural land while maintaining high population density.


Hong Kong has been promoting family planning since the 1950s to promote the promotion of two children in each family with the aim of reducing the high fertility rate at that time. However, in 2006, the birth rate in Hong Kong was the lowest among the 226 countries and regions in the world - only 9.6 new babies per 1,000 people. On the other hand, Hong Kong is the region with the highest average life expectancy. Men's life expectancy is 80.5 years and women are 86.7 years old. As the average life expectancy grows, the population will become more aging. In 2011, the population aged 65 and over accounted for 13% of the total population, which is expected to grow to 27% in 2033.

Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong and one country, two systems

Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong and one country, two systems

Hong Kong's population is ethnic Chinese , accounting for nearly 95% of our population, the majority of countries of origin in Guangdong 's Pearl River Delta , the main say in Cantonese and English , Putonghua is also very popular. Some of them have moved to Hong Kong with temporary mentality, and even if a regional association or chamber of commerce is set up in Hong Kong, there are more than 55 million foreign passports in Hong Kong. Ethnicity except to Indonesian and Filipino largest number, followed by Europeans and Indians . Filipino settlers in Hong Kong are mostly domestic workers and from Indonesia and Thailand , as well as Filipino singer and musicians who have settled in Hong Kong since the Second World War , playing in a lounge or recreation area. In addition, there are no less than the British rule in India , Pakistan and Nepal are the British recruited and recruitment in Hong Kong as police officers and military personnel (such as Gurkha soldiers squat), bank guards, construction workers or in the public schools teach English and subsidized schools in South Asia people The Most of Britons settle in Hong Kong in Hong Kong to British rule and to live in large enterprises and government executives, professionals and the public and subsidized schools English Teacher . The Japanese people settled in Hong Kong are all middle-class companies in Hong Kong who work and settle in Hong Kong.

Since 2000, there has been a phenomenon of male and female men in 2000, when the ratio of male to female is more than 967 men per 1,000 women. The gap has widened over the past few years. In 2011, women were 460,000 more men and 876 men per 1,000 women.


economic



Summary

Development History

Victoria Harbor

Victoria Harbor

In the history of Hong Kong's economic development, it has undergone two economic transformations. Before 1950, Hong Kong's economy was dominated by entrepot trade. Since the beginning of the 1950s, Hong Kong has been industrialized. By 1970, industrial exports accounted for 81% of the total exports, marking that Hong Kong has changed from a simple transit port to an industrialized city, realizing the first transformation of Hong Kong's economy. In the early 1970s, Hong Kong's economic diversification policy, Hong Kong's financial, real estate, trade and tourism industries, especially from the 1980s onwards. Mainland factors became the most important external factor in promoting Hong Kong's economic development. Most of the transfer to the Mainland, all kinds of services to a comprehensive high-speed development, to achieve from the manufacturing sector to the service industry's second economic restructuring. [34] 

economic structure

Hong Kong's economy is dominated by services , and major sectors related to trade in services include tourism and tourism, trade-related services, transport services, financial and banking services and professional services. [35]  As of 2005, 85.3% of Hong Kong were engaged in the service industry, accounting for 34.4% of the wholesale, retail, import and export trade, catering and hotel industries; 10.5% for transportation, warehousing and communications; financial, Real estate and business services accounted for 15%; community, social and personal services accounted for 26%; engaged in manufacturing accounted for only 5.3%. In agriculture, Hong Kong mainly produces small quantities of vegetables, flowers, fruits and rice, pig, cattle, poultry and freshwater fish. Nearly half of the daily demand for agricultural and sideline products is needed in the Mainland of China.

Economic data

Hong Kong is better tomorrow!

Hong Kong is better tomorrow!

Gross domestic product rose by 2.2% in real terms in the