Xian

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Xi'an, called Chang'an , Gao Jing , Shaanxi Province, the provincial capital, deputy provincial city , national and regional central city (northwest), is determined by the State Council approved China western region an important center of the city, the country's major scientific research, education and industrial base, by UNESCO The World Historic City, which was established by the Organization in 1981 . [1] 

Xi'an is located in the central Guanzhong Plain , north of the Weihe River , south by Qinling , eight water Run Changan. The city under the jurisdiction of 11 districts and 2 counties, [2] a  total area of 10108 square kilometers. At the end of 2015 the resident population of 870.56 million, of which the urban population of 635.68 million, urbanization rate of 72.61%. [3-4] 

Chang'an from the ancient emperors, the successor of the Western Zhou Dynasty, Qin, the Western Han Dynasty, the new Mang, the Western Jin Dynasty, the former Zhao, Qian Qin, Qin, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, Sui, Tang 13 dynasties in the Xi'an area capital (plot 1077) The [5]  is one of the important birthplaces of Chinese civilization and the Chinese nation, the starting point of the Silk Road . [6-7]  Fenggao capital, Qin Fanggong, terracotta, Han Weiyang , Changle , Sui Daxing city , Tang Daming Palace , Imperial palace and other sketched out, "Chang Complex." [8] 

Xi'an is China's best tourist destinations, national civilized city , one of [9]  , there are two six heritage is included in the " World Heritage List ", namely: Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum and Terracotta Warriors and Horses , Big Wild Goose Pagoda , Small Wild Goose Pagoda , Chang'an City Daming Palace ruins , Han Chang'an City Weiyang Palace site , to teach the temple tower . [10]  Xi'an is also an important national science and education center, with Xi'an Jiaotong University , Northwestern Polytechnical University , Xi'an University of Electronic Science and Technology and other 7 985 or 211 universities. [11] 

xian_map.jpg


  • Chinese name

  • Xi'an

  • Foreign language name

  • Xi'an

  • Alias

  • Xijing , Chang'an , Gao Jing , Daxing and so on

  • Administrative category

  • Prefecture-level city

  • district belong to

  • North-west region

  • Under the jurisdiction of the area

  • 11 districts, 2 counties

  • Government resident

  • Weiyang District of Xi'an City Fengcheng eight road Weiyang Square

  • Phone area code

  • 029

  • Zip code

  • 710000

  • Location

  • Guanzhong Plain Central

  • Area

  • 10108 square kilometers

  • Population

  • 870.56 million (2015)

  • Dialect

  • Zhongyuan Mandarin - Guanzhong film - Xi'an dialect

  • Climatic conditions

  • Temperate monsoon climate

  • famous scenery

  • Terracotta Warriors and Horses , Bell Tower , Big Wild Goose Pagoda , Small Wild Goose Pagoda , the Qinling Mountains , the Daming Palace , Weiyang Palace , etc.

  • Airport

  • Xi'an Xianyang International Airport

  • TRAIN STATION

  • Xi'an Station , Xi'an North Station , Xi'an South Railway Station

  • License plate code

  • Shaanxi A

  • Famous university

  • Xi'an Jiaotong University , NPU , West, etc.

  • City flower tree tree

  • Pomegranate flower , Sophora japonica

  • Current leader

  • Wang Yongkang , Shangguan Jiqing [12] 

  • GDP

  • 625.718 billion yuan (2016)

  • Per capita GDP

  • 66738 yuan (2015)

table of Contents

  1. 1 system evolution

  2. 2 administrative divisions

  3. ▪ zoning changes

  4. ▪ Overview of the area

  5. 3 Geographical environment

  6. ▪ Location domain

  7. ▪ landscape

  8. ▪ rivers

  9. ▪ Climate

  10. 4 Natural resources

  11. ▪ Water resources

  1. ▪ Land resources

  2. ▪ Biological resources

  3. ▪ Mineral resources

  4. 5 population

  5. 6 Economy

  6. ▪ Summary

  7. ▪ First industry

  8. ▪ Secondary industry

  9. ▪ Tertiary industry

  10. 7 Social undertakings

  11. ▪ traffic

  1. ▪ Education

  2. ▪ Scientific research

  3. ▪ Venue

  4. ▪ Health

  5. ▪ Sports

  6. ▪ communication

  7. 8 culture

  8. ▪ dialects

  9. ▪ religion

  10. ▪ drama

  11. ▪ Painting

  12. 9 Sightseeing

  1. ▪ tourist attractions

  2. ▪ Guaranteed unit

  3. Signature snacks

  4. 10 famous people

  5. ▪ Ancient

  6. ▪ Modern

  7. 11 foreign exchange

  8. ▪ Consulate

  9. ▪ Friendly city

  10. 12 City honors


History

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Xi'an is the first batch of national historical and cultural city announced by the State Council . The history of Zhou , Qin , Han , Sui , Tang and other 13 dynasties in this capital, is one of the world's four ancient capitals , once as the Chinese capital and politics , Economic and cultural center for more than 1,100 years. As early as 100 million years ago, Lam ancient human settlement built here; 7,000 years ago Yangshao period, there have been walls of the prototype; in 2008, Xian Gao Ling Yang Guanzhai 6000 years ago unearthed Neolithic Late urban relics, was selected as the first year of Chinese archaeological discoveries, which is found in China so far the earliest urban sites, but also the history of Xi'an city to 6,000 years ago to the late Neolithic period. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, more than 200 heads of state and dignitaries have visited the ancient capital of Xi'an, including the United Nations Secretary-General , the President of the United States , the Russian President, the German Chancellor, the President of France, the Queen of England , the Emperor of Japan and the President of Korea . [13-15] 

Ancient times, " Lantian ape " Just thrived here; Neolithic "Banpo ancestors" in the establishment of tribal, Banpo people's economic life, the agricultural production occupies a very important position, they burned trees, cultivated fields, planted Millet and other dryland crops. At that time people engaged in production activities used by the tools are stone, animal bones, antlers and pottery and other manufacturing. In addition to food production, Banpo people have begun to grow vegetables . Livestock breeding industry has appeared at the time, when the livestock have pigs and dogs , pig-based. Hunting, fishing is also an important production activities. [13] 

Xi'an ExpoXi'an Expo

In 1957 on the basis of archaeological excavations , built in situ in Xi'an Banpo Museum , built in April 1958 and officially opened to the outside world, is China's first Neolithic site museum , is also the first new China's premiere site museum The Museum area

Xi'an Banpo MuseumThe Banpo Museum of Xi'an

About 3,000 square meters, semi-subterranean houses, Jiaoxue, pens and play the role of flood protection and other relics Tai Wai ditch, relatively complete retention of Banpo primitive society Villages original. [13] 

Xi'an, in the Western Zhou Dynasty called "Harvest". "Feng Hao" is Zhou Wen Wang and Zhou Wu Wang, respectively, the construction of Feng Jing and Gao Jing together. [16]  West Zhou Bo Ji Chang (Zhou Wen Wang) in this southwest of Xi'an to build Fengjing, the subjects from Qishan Zhouyuan moved here. Also ordered son Ji hair (Zhou Wu Wang) in the east coast of Feng water to build Gao Jing. The latter is the political center, the former for the religious, cultural center, collectively known as "Zong Zhou", for the beginning of the city of Xi'an. Wu Wang destroy business to establish the Zhou Dynasty, to pick ho for all, as the beginning of the city of Xi'an. [17] 


  The beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty "into the health of governance" marks the Chinese slavery society into the heyday. BC 841 years, Gao Jing "national riots" is the history of China is the first large-scale mass riots to expel the king of the incident. [18] 

Metropolis Xianyang, the majority of the housing area in this city of Xi'an, Terracotta Warriors and Horses and Qinling in this city of Xi'an (located in Lintong District, Xi'an). Qin ancestral temple in the south bank of the Weihe River

Qin A Fang Gong site restoration mapQin A Fang Gong site restoration map

, Jing Ke thorn Qin Wang, occurred in the Qin Zhang Tai Palace (later Han Weiyang Palace front hall); Lian Pao Lin Xiangru, Qin Wang sitting Zhang Taiwan. Qin Dynasty palace layout has not yet formed the layout of Miyagi, Imperial City and the three main hall. Qin Xianyang city across the Weihe River north and south. [16] 

In 202 BC, Liu Bang obtained power, in Chang'an (now northwest suburb of Xi'an City) to establish the Western Han Dynasty. Liu Bangding Guan Guan, take the meaning of the local Chang'an Township, named "Chang'an", which means "long-term stability." [16] 

Han Chang'an City is located in the Weihe River south of Guanzhong Plain, an area of about 36 square kilometers. In the Western Han Dynasty, as the capital of Chang'an City has been the country's political, economic and cultural center, is also the history of China's first large-scale, many residents of the city. Han Changan is the foundation of the Qin Xianyang established on the basis of "Historical Records": "Han Changan, Qin Xianyang also", Zhang Heng "Xijing Fu" cloud: the Western Han Dynasty Changan "is the Qin system, across the week", " Figure sequence "also cloud:" Wu Zhao, governance Xianyang, because of the Han are ". "Qin Tang Yang from the Huiwen Wang later, it continued to expand south, in the south of the Weihe River to build a chapter, Xing Le Palace, Oasis," the ancient Tang Dynasty geography, "said: Palace, the letter Palace, the house and seven temples and other buildings. Liu Bang won the world, the Lou Jing, Zhang Liang and other persuasion, capital of Chang'an. Repair the Qin Xing Le Palace and Changle Palace, in the Qin Zhangtai based on the construction of Weiyang Palace. That is, Han Chang'an City is built on the basis of Qin Xian Xianyang, indicating that the site is located in the city of Han Cheng Qin system. Han Dynasty palace Que are in this city of Seoul in Xi'an protected area, located in the north of the Second Ring Road, and the Han Dynasty Emperor Wu emperor emperor mausoleum, in this Xianyang City. After the opening of the Silk Road, Changan became the center of oriental civilization, known as "West has Rome, East Chang'an." [16] 

Han Weiyang Palace site restoration mapHan Weiyang Palace site restoration map

Western Han Dynasty 9 years AD , the big Sima Wang Mang officially emperor, had changed the capital of Changan as " Chang ". [18] 

In 582 AD, Sui Wendi ordered the construction of Xindu Daxing City in this city of Xi'an in the southeast of Han Chang'an City. Sui Kanguo at the beginning, the capital is still the old city of Chang'an, due to war, dilapidated. Therefore, the Sui Wendi to give the original dragon north of the Chang'an City, in the first of the original south of Changan City, South East to choose the new site, the construction of Metro Daxing City. [17] 

Tang Ding are Chang'an, changed to Sui Daxing City for Chang'an City, and carried out the repair and expansion. Tang Taizong Zhenguan eight years (AD 634), in the original foreign capital of the northeast of the first to build Daming Palace. After years and continue to build walls, buildings, Xingqing Palace and other buildings. Miyagi is now coincident with this city of Xi'an, the palace coincides with the city of Xi'an. Tang emperor mausoleum, such as Zhaoling, Qianling, etc. are mostly in this Xianyang City. In the Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty Bailing Mausoleum in the jurisdiction of all the county, the dry mausoleum is the Beijing Miao government Fengtian County. [16] 

Since the Sui Wendi Kaihuang two years (AD 582) began to Tang Gaozong Yonghui five years

Tang Daming Palace restoration mapTang Daming Palace restoration map

(AD 654) is basically ready for 72 years. City area of 84.1 square kilometers, layout planning neat, things strictly symmetrical, sub-Miyagi, Imperial City and the three major parts of the city. The layout of the city structure fully embodies the grandeur of the feudal society in the peak period, in the history of Chinese architecture, urban history has an epoch-making influence. [17] 

Five generations , after the beam changed to Beijing Zhao House for Yongzhou , set up a large government, after the Tang Dynasty to change the government for the Beijing government. Song set home in Shaanxi Road, after the Yongxing military road. Zhao Kuangyin unified China, once had to move the capital Changan, and finally because of subordinates against, had to give up the Jin Dynasty Yongxing military road for the government.

Yuan early, the scope of Chang'an City is still using Han Jian "Metro", and use the name of Jingzhao House . Yuan nine years (AD 1272 ), the emperor ancestors sealed his son busy brother for Anxi Wang, guarding its

Datang Furong GardenDatang Furong Garden

To the construction of the West Palace . Yuan sixteen years (AD 1279 ) then the Beijing Zhao House for Anxi Road. Later, due to the rebellion of Anxi Wang, Anxi was withdrawn. Huang Qing first year (AD 1312 ), and change the road for the Feng Yuan Road. According to Li Haowen in the "Changan map" in the painting "Feng Yuan City map", surrounded by only one door, south gate east, north gate west, east and west are not symmetrical, the city building no symmetry pattern. Market concentrated in the northwest corner of the city, there are horse city, sheep market and Qinchuan station and so on. Northeast corner of Prince Edward House (Ming Qin Wangfu), the Temple, the hospital and so on. Marco Polo in the Yuan twelve years (1275 years) travel here, wrote: "City is magnificent, for the capital of Kyrgyzstan will be the city ... ... this city industrial and commercial prosperity, silk production, living with all kinds of Jinjin silk ... ... where life The necessary things, the city are, the value is very cheap. " [17] 

Ming Dynasty formed the pattern of Xi'an today, Xi'an, also derived from the name of the Ming Dynasty. Ming Hongwu two years (AD 1369 ) in March, the general general Xu Dajin soldiers Fengyuan Road, the Ming government to change the yuan for the Xi'an government.

Hongwu years (AD 1370 ), the emperor letters second son Zhu Shuang for the king. In the same year the northeastern corner of the city of Xi'an began construction of the Qin government. Qin Wangfu called "Wang City", after the false "imperial city", Ming Hongwu seven years to eleven years to repair the city wall, Hongwu thirteen years (AD 1380 ) and Hongwu seventeen years (AD 1384 ) were built Drum Tower Bell tower, its location is also with the Yuan Dynasty and the bell tower and no bell tower

Campanile (near) and Drum Tower (far)Campanile (near) and Drum Tower (far)

different.

Hongwu twenty-four years (AD 1391 ) Zhu standard West tour Xi'an , had proposed to move to Xi'an , but he returned to Nanjing after they died. [17] 

Qing Dynasty built in the city of Xi'an still, but in the northeast of the city to build a Manchu garrison, built in the southeast of the Han army stationed in the city, and increased the bell tower southwest governor of the governor and so on. Gengzi change , Empress and Guangxu West fled to Xi'an for up to a year.

October 22, 1911 , after the outbreak of the Revolution in Xi'an, the outbreak of armed uprising, accounting for about a quarter of the city area of the city by the rebels captured and burned, as a corner of the city of Xi'an.

In 1921 Feng Yuxiang first governor Shaanxi, in the original Qin government (octopus field) to modify the house, stationed in the army. [17] 

On the eve of the Anti-Japanese War, the National Government established the Preparatory Committee of the National Government.

During the War of Resistance Against Japan, Henan and other places fell, a large number of refugees along the Longhai Road into Xi'an, mainly concentrated in the train station and Shangren Road (now Jiefang Road) area. Shang Ren Road quickly developed into a new business district, Xi'an City, the commercial center of gravity began to focus on the eastern part of the city.

Ming City Wall - Yongning Gate Gate BuildingMing City Wall - Yongning Gate Gate Building

After the Long March of the Communist Party of China , the northern Shaanxi became a Soviet area and Xi'an became an important frontier of the Kuomintang . [17] 

May 20, 1949 Xi'an liberation, belongs to the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region.

1950 by the Northwest Military and Political Council leadership, January 27, 1953 Northwest Military and Political Committee to the Northwest Administrative Commission jurisdiction, Xi'an is the Northwest Administrative Committee.

March 12, 1953, to the central municipality directly under the central government, one of the 12 central municipality directly under the Central Government; June 19, 1954 to the provincial city.

  • Capital of the dynasty

(11 years), the former Qin (33 years), after Qin (34 years), the Western Wei (22), the Western Zhou Dynasty (the first two years) Year), the Northern Zhou Dynasty (25 years), Sui (38 years), Tang (273 years). [twenty one] 

11 said: on the basis of 10 dynasties plus Wang Mang established the new dynasty (the first 15 years).

12 North Korea said: in 11 on the basis of the West Jin (4 years).

13 North Korea (about 300 years), the Western Han Dynasty (210 years), the new dynasty (15 years), the Eastern Han Dynasty (Xian Di 6 years)

Chang An towerChang An tower

(22 years), the Western Wei Dynasty (22 years), the Northern Zhou Dynasty (25 years), Sui (38 years), Tang (273 years) , the former Qin (33 years) And other 13 dynasties in Xi'an Jiandu. 13 is recognized as the number of dynasties.

14 said: There are two kinds of situations: ① on the basis of the 13 dynasty plus the Great Summer dynasty; ② on the basis of 13 on the establishment of Wu Zetian established Wu Zhou (15 years). [twenty one] 

16 Zhuo said: on the basis of the 13th plus the Western Han Dynasty by Liu Xuan established the regime, by Fan Chong Liu basin to establish the red eye regime and Huang Chao established Qi. [twenty one] 

17 North Korea, said: There are two cases: ① the basis of 14 Case 1 toward the plus Wu Zhou, Qi large and Li Zicheng established Dashun ; ② plus 13 basis towards the Gengshi regime, Red Eyebrows regime, Daqi and Dashun. [twenty one] 

China 's history of the capital of Xi'an dynasty

Western Zhou Dynasty

Gao Jing

Feng Gao site

Zhou Wu Wang - You Wang, a total of 12 Wang

Before 1046 years - before 771 years

Qin

Xianyang

Qin Xianyang City ruins

Qin Xiao Gong - child baby, a total of 6 emperors

Before 350 years - the first 206 years

Western Han Dynasty

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Han emperor - Ruzi baby, a total of 12 emperor

The first 200 years - 9 years

new

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Wang Mang

9 years - 23 years

Eastern Han Dynasty

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Han Xian Di

190 years - 195 years

Western Jin Dynasty

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Jin Emperor

313 years - 316 years

Before Zhao

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Liu Yao

319 years - 328 years

Before Qin

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Fu Jian - Fu Jian, a total of 4 emperor

352 years - 385 years

After the Qin

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Yao Chang - Yao Hong, a total of 3 emperor

386 years - 417 years

West Wei

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Yuan Bao Ju - Yuan profile, a total of 3 emperor

534 years - 557 years

North week

Chang'an

Han Chang'an City ruins

Zhou Min Di - Zhou Jingdi, a total of 5 emperor

557 years - 581 years

Sui

Daxing

Sui Daxing City ruins

Emperor Wen - Gong Emperor, a total of 3 emperor

581 years - 618 years

Don

Chang'an

Tang Chang'an City ruins

Tang Gaozu - Tang Zhaozong, a total of 20 emperors

618 years - 904 years


Administrative divisions

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Zoning history

Xi'an night viewXi'an night view

The early liberation, Xi'an has 12 districts, of which 8 urban areas, suburbs 4, the city has not set up street administrative system, the suburbs with 19 townships.

In 1954, the administrative divisions were adjusted, and the 12 districts and some newly recruited townships were merged into nine districts . The names were: Xincheng District , Beilin District , Lianhu District, Changle District, Yanta District , Fangfang District, Weiyang District , District, Baqiao District.

In 1957 April revocation of Changle, Weiyang two districts formed, municipal area reduced to 7.

November 1958 will be Chang'an, Lantian, Lintong, County was placed under the city of Xi'an.

1960 revoked Lianhu, Forest of Stone Tablets, the new city formed.

August 1961 will be Lantian, Lintong, 鄠 county to draw.

1962 to restore the new town, Forest of Stone Tablets, Lianhu District formed.

1965 revoked Baqiao, Wild Goose Pagoda, A room, Weiyang District formed, the jurisdiction of the merger into a suburb, municipal area reduced to 4.

June 1966, Lintong County belongs to Yanliang town was placed in Xi'an City for Yanliang District, Xianyang City (county-level city) was placed under the Xi'an city.

November 1966, Metro, Forest of Stone Tablets, Lianhu, Yanliang District changed its name to Dongfeng, Xiangyang, Hongwei, East Red District, in 1972 to restore the original name.

November 1971, approved by the State Council, and Xianyang City to draw.

In 1980 March, the revocation of the suburbs of Xi'an, the restoration of Baqiao, Weiyang, Yanta District formed.

In October 1983, approved by the State Council, will Weinan area owned by Lantian, Lintong County and Xianyang area owned by the county, Zhouzhi County (September 1964 will be changed to Huxian County, 盩 厔 changed to week), Gaoling County Xi'an, Xi'an, a total of jurisdiction over the Metro, Forest of Stone Tablets, Lianhu, Baqiao, Weiyang, Yanta, Yanliang 7 District, Changan, Lantian, Lintong, Zhouzhi, Huxian, Gaoling 6 counties.

August 5, 1997, approved by the State Council, the revocation of Lintong County, the establishment of Lintong District . June 2, 2002, approved by the State Council to revoke Chang'an County, the establishment of Chang'an District, Xi'an City, a total of 9 districts and 4 counties.

March 7, 2008, by the municipal government and reported to the provincial government for approval, the revocation of Chang'an District Wangqu town, Ming calf town two township (town) of the establishment, the establishment of the corresponding street offices, the administrative area unchanged Township (town) government resident office for the street office.

To the end of 2012, the city administer New Town, Forest of Stone Tablets, Lianhu, Yanta, Weiyang, Baqiao, Yanliang, Lintong, Changan 9 municipal districts and week to, Lantian, Huxian, Gaoling 4 counties. A total of street, township, town 176, including 89 street offices, 40 towns, 47 townships. [twenty two] 

In 2014, the State Council approved the revocation of Gaoling County, the establishment of Xi'an Gaoling District .

In 2016, the State Council has approved the withdrawal of Huxian County, to the district . At this point, Xi'an has jurisdiction over 11 districts and 2 counties. [2] 

January 22, 2017, Shaanxi Provincial Party Committee, the provincial government held in Xianyang City, on-site office, a clear Xi Xian New District by the Xi'an escrow. [twenty three] 


Area profile

category
  
nameArea (square kilometers)Government residentZip code
Administrative areaWeiyang area264.41Zhangjiapu Street710000
New town area30.13West all the way street710000
Beilin District23.37Zhangjiacun street710000
Lianhu District38.32North Gate Street710000
Baqiao District324.50Textile City Street710000
Yanta District151.44Xiaozhai Road street710000
Yanliang District244.55Phoenix Road street710089
Lintong District915.97Lishan street710600
Chang'an District1588.53Wei Qu street710100
Gaoling District285.03Luyuan Street710200
鄠 area1279.42Gan Ting Street710300
Lantian County2005.95Blue town710500
Zhouzhi County2945.20Two town710400
Xi'an City10108Weiyang area710000
Functional areaWest Ham new area882-
  
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Geographical environment

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Location domain

Xi'an is located in the middle of the Weihe River Basin Guanzhong basin, longitude 107.40 degrees to 109.49 degrees and latitude 33.42 degrees to 34.45 degrees north, north of the Weihe River and the Loess Plateau, south of Qinling. East to zero river and Ba Yuan mountain for the sector, and Huaxian, Weinan City, Shangzhou City, Luonan County phase; West to Taibai Mountain and Qinghua loess plateau for the sector, and Meixian County, Taibai County; North of the Weihe River, northeast across the Weihe River, and Xianyang City, Yangling District and Sanyuan, Jingyang, Xingping, martial arts, Fufeng, Fu Ping and other counties (the north of the Qinling Mountains, City) adjacent. Jurisdiction of things about 204 km, north-south width of 116 km. Area of 9983 square kilometers, of which the urban area of 1066 square kilometers. [twenty four] 


Geomorphology

The geological structure of Xi'an and the two units of the Qinling trough and the North China platform. About now

QinlingQinling

130 million years ago Yanshan movement period across the territory of the Qinling Mountains in the northern foot of the Great Fracture, since about 3 million years ago since the late Tertiary, large fault south Qinling trough fold belt with a new tectonic movement is very active, Bow down sharply, creating the Qinling Mountains. At the same time, the Weihe fault depression, which belongs to the north part of the north China, continues to settle, forming the Weihe River plain under the combined action of the aeolian loess and the Weihe River alluvial. [25] 

Xi'an, the height of the gap between the highest in the country's highest in the city. Towering steep, peaks and peaks of the Qinling Mountains and magnanimous stretch, Pingtou Wo Ye Weihe River plain clear boundaries, constitute the main body of the city of Xi'an. Qinling Mountains main ridge elevation of 2000 meters to 2800 meters, of which the southwest end of Taibai Mountain peak elevation of 3867 meters, is the highest mountain in the middle of the mainland. Weihe River elevation of 400 meters to 700 meters, of which the northeastern Weihe River bed at the lowest elevation of 345 meters. Xi'an city will be established in the Weihe River plains on the second terrace. [25] 


river

Weihe River BasinWeihe River Basin

Xi'an River network intensive, a total of 54 rivers. Among them, the Weihe River, Jing River and Ishikawa River transit river, the rest of the rivers are originated in the Qinling Mountains or Li-southeast hills, the vast majority of rivers from south to north through the Weihe River into the Weihe River. The Yellow River basin area accounts for 98.46% of the total area of the city.

The river basin area is very different. Watershed area of more than 1000 square kilometers of the Heihe River, Bahe and Feng River. The river basin area of the above three rivers accounted for 82.37% of the total area.

Originated in the Qinling Mountains in the south of the Weihe River tributaries, due to steep mountains on the northern slope of the Qinling Mountains, deep valleys, valley peak and white, like the comb teeth, so that the river has the following structural features:

First, the flow of mostly southeast - northwest to. The river in the Qinling Mountains along the gully twists and turns south, out of the valley, along the terrain slope from the southeast to the northwest, geological tectonic fault zone is also roughly along the southeast - northwest, Ba, Chan, Feng River and so along the fault zone to flow.

Second, the vertical ratio of the river. The upstream section of the river flows through the Qinling Mountains, the valley deep, steep, and flow. After the valley in the middle of the section cut through the piedmont perennial inclined plain, the slope decreases, the water flow is slow.

Third, the downstream river lateral swing significantly, with wandering river characteristics. Weihe River continued to migrate northward, Bahe from east to west swing, Fenghe from west to east evolution, 潏, 滈 alternating floods, the formation of flaky ancient river, beach and beach.

QinlingQinling

Fourth, the upper reaches of the river twists and turns deep, multi-canyon beach. Qinling North Yukou up to more than 70 Department.

Fifth is the river bed sediment obvious. From the river source to the estuary, with the slope decreases, the river sediment carrying capacity is reduced, the suspended material in the downstream formation along the river regular accumulation distribution.

The uneven distribution of runoff and space is the common characteristic of river in Xi'an. The annual runoff of the mountainous tributaries is different from that of the dry season by 4 to 7 times. The annual runoff of some tributaries in the mountain reaches 10 times. The runoff of the river is also larger in the year, the annual dry season in February, the runoff is only 2% of the total annual, when the phenomenon of drying up, and 7 to 10 months of flood season accounted for 45% 56%. [26] 


climate

Xi'an plain area is warm temperate semi-humid continental monsoon climate, cold and dry wet four seasons

Xi'anXi'an

The Winter cold, windy, less rain, less rain and snow; spring warm, dry, windy, climate change; summer hot and rainy, drought and drought, more thunderstorms; cool autumn, the temperature drop, The average annual temperature of 13. 0 ℃ ~ 13. 7 ℃, the coldest January average temperature of -1.2 ℃ ~ 0. 0 ℃, the hottest July average temperature of 26. 3 ℃ ~ 26. 6 ℃, the annual minimum temperature -21.2 ℃ (Lantian December 28, 1991), the annual maximum temperature of 43. 4 ℃ (Changan 1966 1966). Annual precipitation 522. 4 ~ 719. 5 mm, increasing from north to south. July, September for two significant precipitation peak months. Year sunshine hours 1646. 1 ~ 2114. 9 hours, the main wind to the local differences, Xi'an city for the northeast wind, Zhouzhi, Huxian for the westerly, Gaoling, Lintong northeast wind, Changan southeast wind, Lam Tin for the northwest wind. Weather disasters are dry, even rain, rain, flood, urban waterlogging, hail, wind, dry hot air, high temperature, lightning, dust, fog, haze, cold, low temperature damage.


Natural resources

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Water resources

Cited Han Yiwei projectCited Han Yiwei project

Xi'an is the lack of water resources in the western city, Xi'an groundwater reserves estimated, totaling about 19.91 billion cubic meters. In December 2001, the main project of the Heihe Water Conservancy Project was completed, supplying 400 million cubic meters of water to Xi'an each year, forming 1.2 million tons of daily water supply capacity. With the groundwater resources, the urban daily water supply capacity could reach 1.72 million tons, which basically met the urban production and life Water. [25] 

Qinling Mountains to the north of the plain area has a good storage of geothermal water geological conditions, only the city can develop a geothermal area of about 780 square kilometers, underground hot water recoverable reserves of about 539 million cubic meters. [25] 


Land Resources

The soil distribution in Xi'an is different from north to south. The plains of the Weihe River in the north are represented by yellow cinnamon soil and cinnamon soil. The Qinling Mountains in the south are represented by yellow brown soil and brown soil. According to the 1980 ~ 1986 soil survey, the city has 12 soil, 24 soil subclass, 50 soil, 181 soil species. The complexity and diversity of soil types provide favorable conditions for the combination of multiple varieties of crops in the region. [25] 


Biological resources

Xi'an's natural vegetation has not been directly affected by the Quaternary continent glaciers, still retain if

Giant panda, twisted horn, golden monkey, black storkGiant panda, twisted horn, golden monkey, black stork

The ancient relics of the third century, such as ginkgo, water tree, even incense, vest and so on. The natural vegetation types of alpine shrub meadow, coniferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest are distributed vertically from high altitude to low altitude in Qinling mountainous area. Wild plants are rich in wild plants, including 138 species of wild plants, 681 genera and 2224 species, one of the important "gene banks" for Chinese seed plants. The Weihe River Plain is mainly cultivated plants for field crops, vegetables, orchards and urban greening. Wild animal resources are mainly distributed in the Qinling Mountains, there are 55 species of mammals, including 177 species of birds, including giant pandas, golden monkey, torsion kausal Qinling subspecies, genera, giant salamander, black stork, white crown long pheasant, Such as rare animals. In order to protect the natural ecosystem and rare animal and plant resources, the territory has established three national nature reserves. [28] 


mineral resources

The strata in Xi'an are complex and tectonic types, which provides favorable conditions for the formation of various mineral resources. There are 47 kinds of mineral resources, including 21 kinds of metal minerals, 22 kinds of non-metallic minerals, 2 kinds of energy and minerals, and 2 other minerals. Most of the metal and non-metallic minerals are distributed in the southern Qinling Mountains. [25] 


Population and nationalities

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As of 2015, the resident population of Xi'an was 8,705,600, a net increase of 7.81 million from the end of last year. Among them, the male population was 446.91 million, accounting for 51.3%; the female population was 423.65 million, accounting for 48.7% and the sex ratio was 105.49 For 100, male to female ratio). The birth rate was 8.80 million, the birth rate was 10.15 ‰; the death population was 4.78 million, the mortality rate was 5.51 ‰; the natural growth rate was 4.64 ‰. Urban population of 635.68 million, accounting for 73.02%; rural population of 234.88 million, accounting for 26.98%. At the end of the city's total population of 815.66 million, an increase of 0.05% over the previous year. [3] 

Xi'an is a multi-ethnic city. As of 2012, the city a total of 53 ethnic groups, of which 52 ethnic minorities, resident population of 97,800 people, accounting for 1.15% of the total population. Among the ethnic minorities, the Hui population has the largest population of 64216 people, accounting for 75.28% of the total population of ethnic minorities. Other ethnic minorities, 10000 to 1000 people have five, namely, Manchu 9928 people, Mongolian 3086 people, Korean people 1133 people, Zhuang 1201 people, Tujia 1060 people; 1000 to 500 people have three, respectively Tibetan 848 people, Uygur 690 people, Miao 655 people; 500 to 100 people have 7; 100 people below 33 people, there are 29 people do not recognize the nation. The city's nine districts and four counties have ethnic minorities, Lianhu District, the largest population of ethnic minorities, about 35,000 people, of which 32 million people belong; Lantian County, at least 146 people. [30] 


economic

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Summary

Xi'an is the economic, cultural and business center of the Silk Road Economic Zone , the new Eurasian Continental Bridge and the largest city in the Yellow River.

Silk RoadSilk Road

In 2014, Xi'an's GDP (GDP) was 547.777 billion yuan, up 9.9 percent from the previous year, an increase of 2.5 percentage points higher than that of the whole country, 0.2 percentage points higher than the province. The added value of the secondary industry was 21.55 billion yuan, up by 5.1%; the added value of the secondary industry was 220.537 billion yuan, up by 11.3 percent; the added value of the tertiary industry was 305.585 billion yuan, up by 9.0 percent.


primary industry

In 2014, the total grain output in Xi'an reached 1,756,100 tons, to achieve "11 even Feng", of which 8.85 million tons of summer grain, autumn grain 875,600 tons. The output of major agricultural products increased steadily. Vegetable production of 316.28 million tons, up 6.1% over the previous year; fruit production of 996,600 tons, up 4.7%; milk production 658,000 tons, unchanged from the previous year; poultry production of 135,200 tons, down 0.1%; meat production 16.19 Million tons, an increase of 2.8%, of which pork production 118,600 tons, an increase of 3.8%. Pig population of 9.01 million, down 1.6% over the previous year; pig slaughter 155.51 million, an increase of 2.7% over the previous year. [29] 


Secondary industry

In 2014, the added value of industrial enterprises above designated size in Xi'an was 11.9528 billion yuan, up by 11.1% over the previous year. The growth rate dropped by 4.3 percentage points over the previous year, 2.8 percentage points higher than that of the whole province, 0.2 percentage points lower than that of the whole province. Among them, the equipment manufacturing industry added value 55.854 billion yuan, an increase of 14.8%.

In 2014 the city's construction industry to achieve added value of 73.160 billion yuan, up 11.3% over the previous year, the growth rate down 0.9 percentage points over the previous year. Housing construction area of 11182.18 million square meters, an increase of 32.9%, 16.9 percentage points higher than the previous year, of which the new construction area of 38,159,300 square meters this year, an increase of 31.1%; completed area of 25.3671 million square meters, an increase of 16.8%.

Xi'an main development zone and new district 
Xi'an Hi - Tech Industrial Development ZoneXi'an Economic and Technological Development ZoneXi'an Qujiang New District
Xi'an Chanba ecological zoneShaanxi Xixian New District Fengdong New TownShaanxi Xixian New District Fengxi New Town
Xi'an International Port AreaShaanxi Aerospace Economic and Technological Development ZoneShaanxi Aviation Economic and Technological Development Zone


Tertiary Industry

In 2014, the total investment in fixed assets was 590.398 billion yuan, up 15.0% over the previous year (

Qinling - Cuihua MountainQinling - Cuihua Mountain

After deducting the actual growth factor 14.1%), the growth rate down 6.0 percentage points over the previous year. Among them, private investment 308.245 billion yuan, an increase of 20.1%, accounting for 52.2% of the total social investment.

In 2014, the total retail sales of social consumer goods in Xi'an reached 287.290 billion yuan, up 12.8 percent over the previous year (excluding real price factors increased by 12.0%). The growth rate dropped by 1.2 percentage points over the previous year, 0.8 percentage points higher than that of the whole country. Province is flat. The annual retail sales of consumer goods (units) above the quota of more than 228.553 billion yuan, up 13.2%, down 3.6 percentage points.

Xi'an's total import and export volume was US $ 24.983 billion, up by 38.9% over the previous year. The growth rate was 0.7 percentage points higher than that of the previous year. Among them, the total export value was US $ 11.961 billion, up by 41.1%. The total import value was US $ 13.022 billion, up by 37.0%.


Social cause

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traffic

highway

Xi'an is located in the Chinese land map center and the central and western regions of China's two major economic areas of the Department, is the northwest to the Central Plains , North China and East China must pass through the road. In the regional economic layout of the country, Xi'an as the new Eurasian Continental Bridge China - Longhai Lanzhou railway along the economic center of the largest western central city, is the implementation of the western development strategy of the bridgehead, with east and west, connecting North and south of the important strategic position, is the national trunk road network in one of the largest node cities.

Highway construction has formed a Xi'an as the center, there are nine national high-speed in this intersection, formed through Shaanxi Province, radiation surrounding provinces and cities of the high-level "meters" type radial trunk highway system, more than 2,800 km highway, there are 6 national highway through. Ring high-speed, the airport built a new line, Second Ring Road, Third Ring Road, a comprehensive through. Urban areas and the districts and counties all opened the highway.

railway

Xi'an is Shaanxi Province, "rice" shaped rail transport an important hub. By the end of December 2012,

Xi'an North StationXi'an North Station

Xi'an has opened to Beijing , Guangzhou , Changsha , Shenzhen , Wuhan , Zhengzhou , Shijiazhuang direct high-speed rail lines.

Railway lines have Zhengxi high-speed railway , Xibao high-speed railway , Daxi passenger line and so on.

Railway station in Xi'an station , Xi'an North Station .

aviation

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport is China's major airports , there are a total of 20 airlines operating at the airport more than 150 routes, more than 400 flights a day at the airport take off and land. Passenger throughput in 2009 reached 15.29 million, the fastest growth rate for the top ten airports

Xi'an Xianyang International AirportXi'an Xianyang International Airport

Of the airport.

From March 2009, Xi'an Xianyang International Airport Phase II expansion project started, the total investment of 10.391 billion yuan, will be built in the south side of the existing runway 3800 meters long, 60 meters wide second runway and parallel taxiway, So that the flight area to 4F standard, to take off and landing A380 and other large intercontinental aircraft. The new 253,000 square meters of Terminal 3, the size of the original terminal 4 times, after the completion of the new Terminal 3 and the existing No. 1, No. 2 terminal as a whole , And there are ferry to and from the meantime, to facilitate the transit passengers, the terminal between the integration of traffic.

subway

Xi'an subway route mapXi'an subway route map

Xi'an Metro , as of November 2016 has opened on the 1st line (blue), Line 2 (red), Line 3 (light purple), built on the 4th line (green), is the first in the northwest subway line City, but also become the tenth in mainland China has a subway operating line of the city. [31] 

As of 2013 Xi'an subway operation two lines, operating mileage of 45.9 km, Xi'an subway operation line design covers six municipal districts of Xi'an (New Town, Beilin District, Lianhu District, Baqiao District, Weiyang District, Yanta District, Chang'an District ), Connecting the ancient city, east, west, south of the city, north of the five major urban areas, strung up the east and west axis of Xi'an, the third bridge, the door, five junctions, rehabilitation road, textile city, north and south axis of the first, Bell tower, Xiaozhai and other business district, making the city close contact in the 1 hour economic circle.

Xi'an Metro Line 2 on September 16, 2011 at 14 pm officially opened to traffic.

Xi'an Metro Line 1 was officially opened at 10:00 on September 15, 2013.

Xi'an Metro Line 3 on November 8, 2016 at 12 noon officially opened operations. [32] 

Traffic in the city

  • Bus

Xi'an is the country of the first 15 cities to create "transit city" building demonstration project, one of [33]  , the existing public bus routes about 280, including four run overnight lines. Most of the ordinary city bus fare 1 yuan, high-grade air-conditioned car fare 2 yuan, the public use of Xi'an city card Changan Tong can enjoy half-price concessions, student card 30% discount. In March 2012, Xi'an to take measures to prevent congestion, to promote public transport, began to implement eight micro-bus (3 has been running), while planning to build two bus . The end of 2012, Xi'an update and replace the bus 750, making the total number of operations to more than 7,500, public transport travel rate of 42%. [34] 


education

Basic education

In 2014, 421 ordinary high school in Xi'an, 425,700 students in school, graduates 145.5 million; 1257 primary school students in 537,900 people, graduates of 82,900 people. Primary school, junior high school age population enrollment rate was 99.98% and 99.80%. [35] 

Xi'an Key Middle School

Xi'an secondary school in Shaanxi province

West fly one

The Eighty - third Middle School of Xi'an

Shaanxi Normal University High School

Chang'an, Shaanxi Province

Xi'an Far East one

The 30th Middle School of Xi'an

Xi'an high school first high school

Xi'an iron three

Xi'an iron one

Northwestern Polytechnical University

The Eighty - fifth Middle School in Xi'an

Xi'an Jiaotong University

Xi'an Aerospace Middle School

Xi'an No.3 Middle School

Xi'an twenty - sixth middle school

Xi'an sixth middle school

Xi'an Yucai Middle School

Xi'an first middle school

Qing'an Middle School
Reference Source [36-37] 

Higher education

Xi'an Jiaotong UniversityXi'an Jiaotong University

Xi'an is one of the most concentrated cities in the western institutions of higher learning and scientific research institutes. It is the city with the highest density and higher education in the whole country. It is an important place in the western region and the whole country. It is one of the five major educational and scientific research centers in China.

Xi'an is a technologically advanced and innovative city. Comprehensive scientific and technological strength ranks the forefront of the city, the city has 49 ordinary colleges and universities, with more than 3,000 scientific and technological institutions of various types, all kinds of independent research institutions 661, including state-level key laboratories, industry testing center 44, 63.22 million people, all kinds of professional and technical personnel 41.77 million people, each year master's degree, doctoral graduates more than 10,000 people, there are 45 academicians, with many countries and world-class scientists. The city's college education population of 820,000, accounting for the proportion of the city's total population of 10.92%, ranked first in the country. The city's adults over the age of 18 to accept the proportion of education ranks first in the country. Here gathered more than one-third of the power of China's space, "Shenzhou" on the 5th, six rocket engines and propellants, arrows carrying computers and remote sensing devices, are made in Xi'an research and manufacturing. In 2009 the city's patent applications amounted to 12,772, science and technology contribution to economic growth rate of 51%. [29] 

In 2014, the city's 63 colleges and universities, 90.53 million students in school, 23.95 million graduates, and 43 graduate students training units, 88,5 million graduate students, graduates of 24100 people. [29] 

InstitutionsSchool attributeThe competent authority

Xi'an Jiaotong University

Nine schools Union (C9 Union), the first nine 985 projects, 211 projects (vice ministerial level)

Ministry of Education

Northwestern Polytechnical University

985 works, 211 work