Shanghai

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Shanghai, on China’s central coast, is the country's biggest city and a global financial hub. Its heart is the Bund, a famed waterfront promenade lined with colonial-era buildings. Across the Huangpu River rises the Pudong district’s futuristic skyline, including 632m Shanghai Tower and the Oriental Pearl TV Tower, with distinctive pink spheres. Sprawling Yu Garden has traditional pavilions, towers


Nanjing Road is the city’s longtime shopping thoroughfare, with a range of stores that are brightly lit at night. It leads to expansive People’s Square, where the Shanghai Museum displays carved jade, calligraphy and other traditional Chinese arts. Longhua Temple is a large complex known for its ornate Song dynasty pagoda. The French Concession, home of the city’s French population from 1849 to 1943, offers tree-lined streets, art deco buildings and hip boutiques, cafes and bars. Shanghai’s native cuisine features specialties such as xiaolongbao (steamed dumplings), hairy crabs and drunken chicken.


Shanghai , referred to as " Shanghai " or " Shen ", is the People's Republic of China municipality , the national central city , large cities , China's economy , transportation , science and technology , industry , finance , trade , exhibition and shipping center, the first coastal open city . Is located in the Yangtze River estuary , separated from the East China Sea and Japan Kyushu Island , south of Hangzhou Bay , North, West and Jiangsu , Zhejiang provinces connected. [1-3] 

Spring and Autumn Warring States period, Shanghai is Chu Chou Shen Jun Jun Huang Jie of the feast , so Shanghai said nothing . Four or five century Jin period, because the fishermen to create fishing tools "Hu", the river into the sea called "ditch", so the lower reaches of the Songjiang area known as the "Hu", later changed "Shanghai", so Shanghai referred to as Shanghai . [4]  Tang Tianbao years before the county system. Song Dynasty had "Shanghai" in the name. Yuan Dynasty set up in Shanghai County, marking the beginning of the city of Shanghai. [5]  Shanghai is a national historical and cultural city , has a profound modern city culture and many historical monuments. Jiangnan Wu Yue culture and the introduction of Western industrial culture to form a unique Shanghai Shanghai culture . [6-7] After  1843, Shanghai became a commercial port opened to the outside world and quickly developed into the largest city in the Far East . [8-9] 

Shanghai, a total area of 6340 square kilometers, jurisdiction over 16 municipal districts , is a subtropical humid monsoon climate with four distinct seasons, sufficient sunshine, abundant rainfall. [10] 

2015, Shanghai GDP ranks first in China's cities, the second Asian city, second only to Tokyo , Japan . Shanghai is also one of the world's leading financial centers, the world's largest population and the largest metropolitan area. Shanghai and Jiangsu , Anhui , Zhejiang constitute the Yangtze River Delta city group has become the world's six major world-class city group. [11] 

Shanghai port cargo throughput and container throughput rank first in the world, is a good coastal city of Binhai coastal international. Shanghai is mainland China 's first FTA China (Shanghai) free trade area of the test location.


  • Chinese name

  • Shanghai

  • Foreign language name

  • Shanghai

  • Alias

  • Shencheng , magic are , Shanghai , Oriental Paris

  • Administrative category

  • Municipalities

  • district belong to

  • China East China

  • Under the jurisdiction of the area

  • 16 municipal districts

  • Government resident

  • Huangpu District People 's Road 200

  • Phone area code

  • 021

  • Zip code

  • 200000

  • Location

  • Yangtze River estuary south bank, the East China Sea coast

  • Area

  • 6340 square kilometers [12] 

  • Population

  • 24.17 million (2016) [13] 

  • Dialect

  • "Wuhu - Taihu Piece - Su Hujia Small piece - Shanghai dialect

  • Climatic conditions

  • Subtropical monsoon climate

  • famous scenery

  • Bund , Yu Garden , Nanjing Road , People's Square , Jing'an Temple , Xintiandi , Disneyland and so on

  • Airport

  • Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport , Shanghai Pudong International Airport

  • TRAIN STATION

  • Shanghai Railway Station , Shanghai South Railway Station , Shanghai Hongqiao Station , Shanghai West Railway Station , etc.

  • License plate code

  • Shanghai A-Shanghai N

  • GDP

  • 274,665 million yuan (2016) [14] 

  • Per capita GDP

  • 11.36 million yuan (2016)

  • City tree flower

  • French Indus , Magnolia

  • Famous university

  • Fudan University, Tongji, Jiaotong University, East China Normal University, etc. [15] 

  • Current leader

  • Party Secretary: Han Zheng  Mayor: Ying Yong [16] 

  • Subway operating mileage

  • 617km

  • Administrative code

  • 310000


History

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Shanghai, the spring and autumn is Wu . Warring States have the case of Wu , Vietnam , Chu , Chu was Chunshenjun Huang Xie's fief .

Songjiang House map (Qing Jiaqing)

Songjiang House map (Qing Jiaqing) (3 photos)

After the Qin and Han dynasties belong to sea salt, by the fist, Lou County counties.

Tang Tianbao decade (751 years), Wu Jun prefect Sonata quasi set up Huating County , Shanghai area before they have relatively independent of administrative divisions . Huating County jurisdiction of the territory of this Shanghai Wusong River south of the old course, Chuansha - Huinan - large group line west of the region.

During the Northern Song Dynasty, Shanghai mainland area belongs to Huating County and Kunshan County , Chongming area is Haimen County .

Song Xining years (1077), has set up Shanghai's traffic. Yuan Dynasty Shanghai Lixian County, an area of about 2,000 square kilometers, the county is about this old Wusong River south of the city, Qingpu County, Minhang District, most of the Pudong New Area and Nanhui County.

Southern Song Jiading Decade in December 9th (January 7, 1218) Li Jiading County , Shanghai has two independent administrative divisions.

Yuan Yuan fourteen years (1277), Huating County or the government, the following year renamed Songjiang Prefecture , is still home Huating County scribe. To twenty-nine years (1292) Shanghai County, also under the jurisdiction of Songjiang House. The late Yuan Dynasty, the Shanghai area Songjiang House and Jiading, Chongming 2 states and Huating, Shanghai 2 counties.

People on the road to the ancient city of Shanghai and the Great PavilionPeople on the road to the ancient city of Shanghai and the Great Pavilion

Ming the end, there are the Songjiang Prefecture and belongs Huating, Shanghai Qingpu County 3, Suzhou government -owned Jiading, Chongming County 2, Jinshan.

Qing Emperor Yongzheng four years (1726), Songjiang House Huating, Shanghai, Qingpu, Lou, Fengxian, Fuquan , Jinshan, Nanhui 8 counties, Taicang Jiading, Baoshan 2 counties. To the Jiaqing ten years (1805 years), the basic form of the Shanghai area 10 county 1 hall, there are Songjiang House Huating, Shanghai, Qingpu, Lou, Fengxian, Jinshan, Nanhui 7 County and Chuan Sha Fu Hall, Taicang Jiading, Chongming, Baoshan 3 counties. To Qing Jiaqing fifteen years (1810) shrink 600 square kilometers, the county is about this old Wusongjiang old town south of the city, most of the Pudong New Area, Minhang District. County for the original South City People's Road , China Road ring within the region.

Daoguang twenty-three years (1843) Shanghai opened the port, Daoguang twenty-five years Shanghai County pidgin north of the area designated as foreigners residence, after the formation of the British concession. Daoguang twenty-eight years to Hongkou area as the US concession. Daoguang twenty years to the north of the county, the British concession to the south of the French Concession.

Tongzhi two years (1863), British and American concessions merged into Anglo-American public concession, Guangxu twenty-five years (1899) and renamed the Shanghai international public concession . Since then, the concession has expanded many times.

Opium War after the opening of Shanghai, foreign vessels from abroad dating back straight and on the first British colonists in 1845 in Shanghai County Realm delineated British concession; in 1849, the French colonists requirement to delineate the French concession; in 1863, the United States Settlement And the British concession to set up a public concession . At this point, the Shanghai area is divided into different jurisdictions, the Suzhou River to the north of the old gate (Song Dynasty) and the new gate (Qing Dynasty) area due to the inflow of a large number of poor farmers, and gradually rise, the formation of North City.

Shanghai historical zoning mapShanghai historical zoning map

In 1810 the Qing government issued the "urban and rural autonomy constitution", Shanghai County, south of the city, the old gate, the new gate, Jiang Jing Temple area for the Shanghai city ; another Pu Songzhen, East Town and 12 townships.

In January 1912, the Republic of China was established . Jiangsu Province, Shanghai, Huating (later renamed Songjiang), Jiading , Baoshan, Chuansha, Nanhui, Fengxian, Jinshan, Qingpu, Chongming and other 10 counties.

In 1914, Jiangsu Province is divided into Shanghai and other five, of which Shanghai Haidian in Shanghai County, jurisdiction this is Shanghai, Shanghai, Songjiang, Nanhui, Qingpu, Fengxian, Jinshan, Chuansha, Jiading, Baoshan, Chongming and other counties Jiangsu Province, Haimen County.

In July 1921, the Communist Party of China was held in Shanghai and the Communist Party of China was formally established.

In 1925, the Northern government allowed Shanghai to change to Songhu City . The same year occurred in the " May 30 " movement . In 1927 there was a four-and-a- half anti-revolutionary coup .

1926 Sun Chuan-fang Governor Jiangsu Province, the establishment of the Songhu commercial port, the whole territory of Shanghai, Zhabei , Pudong , Huxi and Wusong 5 area.

After the establishment of the National Government , according to Sun Yat-sen 's Greater Shanghai plan . [17] 

In 1928 the National Government set up a special city in Shanghai, expanding the urban area, including Shanghai, Baoshan County , part of the establishment of 17 districts, while the Shanghai area is still in Jiangsu Province , Shanghai and Shanghai from the separation. City area east of Pudong, west to Jing'an Temple , Xujiahui , south of Longhua , North Baoshan Road at the end.

July 7, 1927, the Shanghai Special City was established, directly under the central government, Shanghai has a municipality directly under the municipal level.

In the spring of 1928, the Shanghai Special City announced the concession as a special district. July, to receive the Shanghai County Shanghai (Shanghai South), Zhabei, Pu Song, Yang Jing, cited Xiang Hong Kong, France, Caohejing, high line, Lu Xing, Tangqiao, Yang Si and Baoshan County Wusong, Riverside, Tian, really, Gaoqiao Township 17, is the actual realm of Shanghai Special Administrative City, an area of 494.69 square kilometers (excluding concessions ). And change 17 municipalities and 17 districts, Shanghai has a district level construction. Shanghai, Shanghai, Jiading, Baoshan, Songjiang, Chuansha, Qingpu, Nanhui, Fengxian, Jinshan, Chongming 10 counties still attached to Jiangsu Province.

July 1930, Shanghai Special City was renamed Shanghai.

In 1932, Japan in Shanghai to provoke a 28 incident . In August 1937, China launched in Shanghai, " Songhu battle ."

November 1937, Shanghai fall. The following year in December, Jiangsu Province, Chuansha, Nanhui, Fengxian, Chongming, Baoshan, Jiading and other counties and the Shanghai Puxi area was placed under the jurisdiction of Wang fake Shanghai municipal government.

July 30, 1943 and August 1, Wang pseudo-government announced "to recover" the public concession and the French Concession. November 24, 1945, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced the acceptance of the Shanghai public concession , the Shanghai Concession , which lasted a hundred years of the Shanghai concession ended. (Atlas of Shanghai Metropolitan Atlas (18-20  ))

August 1945, Shanghai is still the pre-war area 17 and special area.

1947 Shanghai area of 617.95 square kilometers.

December 1948 Shanghai is divided into 30 districts. May 27, 1949 Shanghai liberation.

In May 1949 after the liberation of Shanghai, the establishment of the Shanghai Municipal People's Government, set up the Huangpu , the old gate, Yimiao , Penglai , Songshan , Luwan, Changshu , Xuhui, Changning, Putuo , Zhabei , Jing'an , into a new, Jiangning , North Station, Hongkou , North Sichuan Road, Tilanqiao , Yangpu , Yulin and other 20 districts and the new city , Jiangwan , Wusong , the field , the new Jing , Longhua , Yang Jing, Zhenru , Takahashi and other 10 suburbs. Meanwhile, Shanghai's suburban counties included southern Jiangsu , northern Jiangsu administrative office, after the jurisdiction of Jiangsu Province.

On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was established. Shanghai is still a municipality. Shanghai is divided into 20 urban areas and 10 suburbs.

In 1956 after administrative adjustment, the Shanghai area reduced to 18, administer 15 urban areas and 3 suburbs.

In 1958, in order to meet the needs of urban development, Jiangsu Province belongs to the suburbs of Shanghai belong to Shanghai, thus, Shanghai Huangpu , Yupiao, Penglai, Luwan, Xuhui, Changning , Putuo , Zhabei , There are 11 districts such as Hongkou , Tengqiao, Yangpu and Yulin , with a total area of 6340.5 square kilometers, such as Pudong , Jiading , Baoshan , Shanghai, Chongming , Songjiang , Fengxian , Nanhui , Qingpu , Chuansha and Jinshan . More than ten times more.

In January 1960, the withdrawal of Temple, Penglai set up the southern city, there are 12 districts and 11 counties.

The Republic of China has so far the map of Shanghai

Map of Shanghai, the Republic of China (18 photos)

In March 1960, Zhoushan County, Zhejiang Province Shengsi People's Commune is assigned to Shanghai.

1961 Shanghai jurisdiction over 12 districts, 10 counties. In 1962 Shengsi was assigned to Zhejiang Province.

In 1964, the withdrawal of Minhang District and Wusong District , then Shanghai has maintained 10 districts and 10 counties unchanged for more than 10 years.

After the Cultural Revolution, 1980,1981 two years, and then set up Wusong District and Minhang District .

In 1988, the revocation of Wusong and Baoshan County to Baoshan District.

In 1992, the revocation of Jiading County , the establishment of Jiading District .

For further reform and opening up, in 1993, the withdrawal of Chuansha County, its territory and Huangpu, Yangpu, South City, Pudong and Minhang Sanlin Township merged to set up Pudong New Area . In the same year, the revocation of Shanghai and Minhang District, the formation of a new Minhang District .

In 1995, Shanghai City, Pudong New Area, Xuhui, Changning , Putuo , Zhabei, Yangkou, Yangpu, Huangpu, South City, Luwan, Jing'an, Baoshan , Minhang, Jiading and other 14 districts and Nanhui, Fengxian, Songjiang, Jinshan , Qingpu, Chongming There are 6 counties, there are 106 streets, 208 towns, 10 townships and 3590 residents' committees, 2986 administrative villages. Area of 6340.5 square kilometers, of which land area of 6218.65 square kilometers, water area of 697 square kilometers. [twenty one] 

The end of the 20th century, Songjiang County , Qingpu County and Jinshan County also changed to the district.

In 2000 the city into the Huangpu District .

January 2001 Fengxian County , Nanhui County withdrawal county construction area.

Shanghai city center to enlarge the mapShanghai city center to enlarge the map

2009 in order to better develop the Pudong area, the rational allocation of regional economic and social resources , comprehensive optimization of the overall layout, to promote social and healthy development , withdrawal Nanhui District , Pudong New Area , set up a new Pudong New Area .

June 8, 2011, the State Council formally approved the Shanghai administrative division adjustment, agreed to revoke the Huangpu District and Luwan District formed a new Huangpu District . [twenty two] 

November 4, 2015, the Shanghai municipal government announced in the city's cadres, Jing'an District and Zhabei District, the formal merger, the formation of a new Jing'an District . [twenty three] 

July 22, 2016, the only one in Shanghai under the jurisdiction of the county - Chongming County, set up the county, restructuring for the Chongming District , which marks the city of Shanghai bid farewell to the county, the city formed under the jurisdiction of the 16 municipal districts of the new situation. [24-25] 

geography

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Location domain

Shanghai is located between 120 ° 52 'and 122 ° 12' east latitude , latitude 30 ° 40 'to 31 ° 53' east , located in the Pacific West Bank, east coast of the Asian continent, China's north and south coast center, the Yangtze River and the Huangpu River sea confluence The North of the Yangtze River , east of the East China Sea , south of Hangzhou Bay, west of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces.

Shanghai night view

Shanghai night view

topography

Shanghai is part of the Yangtze River Delta alluvial plain, the average height of about 4 meters above sea level. West Tianma Mountain , Xue Shan , Phoenix Hill and other residual hill, Tianma Mountain for the highest point on the land of Shanghai, 99.8 meters above sea level, standing stone "Sheshan top". There the waters Daikin mountains, small Jinshan , Fushan (Turtle Mountain), Sheshandao , small Yangshan Island and other Rock Island. In the north of Shanghai, the Yangtze River into the sea, Chongming Island , Changxing Island , Hengdao Island three islands. Chongming Island is the third largest island in China, surrounded by sediment from the Yangtze River, an area of 1041.21 square kilometers, 3.5 meters to 4.5 meters above sea level. Changxing Island area of 88.54 square kilometers, Hengsha Island area of 55.74 square kilometers.

Regional change

Shanghai administrative divisionsShanghai administrative divisions

In 1949, Shanghai's land area was only 636 square kilometers. In 1958, 10 counties in Jiading , Baoshan , Shanghai , Songjiang , Jinshan , Chuansha , Nanhui , Fengxian , Qingpu and Chongming were set up in Shanghai to expand the area of Shanghai to 5910 square kilometers. 10 times. At the end of 2006, Shanghai's total area of 6340.5 square kilometers, of which land area of 6218.65 square kilometers, the Yangtze River estuary area of 1107 square kilometers, beach area of 376 square kilometers [26]  . The second national land survey, the city's total land survey area of 8359.12 square kilometers (1253.87 million mu). As of December 31, 2009, the city's cultivated land 1897.59 square kilometers (284.64 million mu); garden 179.89 square kilometers (26.98 million mu); forest land 506.05 square kilometers (75.91 million mu); grass 16.41 square kilometers (2.46 million mu) Urban and rural land and industrial and mining land: 2557.94 square kilometers (383.69 million mu); transportation land: 402.17 square kilometers (60.33 million mu); water and water conservancy facilities land: 2749.17 square kilometers (412.38 million mu); other land 49.90 square kilometers Mu) [12]  .

Climate environment

Shanghai is subtropical monsoon climate , four distinct seasons, full sunshine, abundant rainfall. Shanghai climate is mild and humid, spring and autumn is shorter, longer winter and winter. In 2013, the city's average temperature of 17.6 ℃, sunshine 1885.9 hours, precipitation 1173.4 mm. More than 60% of the annual rainfall is concentrated in the May to September flood season.

month

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Temperature

4.2

6.9

9.4

14.9

20.6

24.4

27.9

27.1

24.4

17.6

12.2

7.3

Precipitation

42

64

90

112

117

153

138

119

141

102

88

71

Resources

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mineral resources

The lack of metal mineral resources in Shanghai , the construction of stone is also very scarce, land energy and mineral resources are also scarce. Since the 1970s began to find oil and gas resources in the offshore , in a number of drilling wells to obtain industrial crude oil and natural gas. According to preliminary estimates, the East China Sea continental shelf oil and gas reserves of about 6 billion tons, is China's largest offshore oil and gas basin. Near the South Yellow Sea, after investigation and exploration, also found oil and gas resources, estimated 290 million tons of reserves. The East China Sea water is rich in chemical resources, in the Yangtze River estuary under the shallow sea, also found some mineral anomalies, zircon , titanite, garnet , rutile and other important minerals. [27] 

Biological resources

Urban scenery

Cityscape (26 photos)

There are few natural vegetation in Shanghai, and most of them are artificially cultivated crops and trees. Natural woody plant communities, only distributed in Dajingshan Island and Sheshan and other local areas, natural herbs plant communities distributed in the sandbar , beach and port branch. There are more than 100 varieties of cultivated crops, nearly 10,000 varieties. Vegetables up to more than 400 kinds, ranking the highest in the country, fruits and ornamental flowers are also many varieties. Animal resources are mainly livestock and poultry varieties, wild animal species has been very rare. Rich in aquatic resources, a total of 226 species of fish are 226 species, including 171 kinds of freshwater fish, marine fish 55 species. [27] 

Water resources

Shanghai is located in the Yangtze River estuary, the eastern edge of the Taihu Lake BasinShanghai is located in the Yangtze River estuary, the eastern edge of the Taihu Lake Basin

Shanghai is located in the Yangtze River estuary , the eastern edge of the Taihu Lake Basin . The territory of the river (lake) area of about 500 square kilometers, the river area rate of 9% to 10%; Shanghai river length of 20,000 km, the average density of river network per square kilometer 3 km to 4 km.

Shanghai territory of rivers, lakes, ponds and white water network intertwined, the main river waters and the Yangtze River mouth, Wusong Huangpu River and its tributaries ( Suzhou River ), Sheng Bang algae , Chuan Yang River , Dianpuhe , Dazhi River , oblique Pond , round off Jing, Dagang Hong Kong, Tai Pu River , the junction of Hong Kong, and Jinhui Hong Kong , oil pier and so on. The total flow of the Huangpu River is more than 80 kilometers long, the river width is 300 meters to 700 meters, the upper reaches of the Songjiang District meters crossing to undertake Taihu Lake , Yangcheng Lake area and Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain water, runs through Shanghai to Wusong mouth Into the Yangtze River estuary. Wusong River originated in Taihu melon Jing mouth, in the urban area outside the white bridge near the Huangpu River , a total length of about 125 km, of which about 54 km in Shanghai, commonly known as the Suzhou River, the main tributary of the Huangpu River. Shanghai's lakes are concentrated in the western depression with the Soviet Union and Zhejiang, the largest lake for the Dianshan Lake , an area of 60 square kilometers. [28] 

Zoning

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Shanghai jurisdiction over 16 municipal districts , the Shanghai Municipal People's Government is located in Shanghai Huangpu District People's Avenue 200.

City areaareaZip codeGovernment residentAdministrative division code

Huangpu District

20 square kilometers

200001

Bund Street, Yan'an Road, No. 300

310101

Xuhui District

55 square kilometers

200030

Xujiahui Street Caoxi North Road 336

310104

Changning District

38 square kilometers

200050

Jiangsu Road, Changning Road, No. 599

310105

Jing'an District

37 square kilometers

200040

Jiangning Road Street, Changde Road, No. 370

310106

Putuo District

56 square kilometers

200333

Really like the town streets Dadu River Road 1668

310107

Hongkou District

23 square kilometers

200080

No.518, Feihong Road, Jiaxing Road

310109

Yangpu District

61 square kilometers

200082

Pingliang Road, No. 549 Jiangpu Road

310110
Pudong New Area1210 square kilometers200135Flower Street, Century Boulevard, 2001310115

Minhang District

372 square kilometers

201100

Xinzhuang Town Humin Road 6258

310112

Baoshan District

294 square kilometers

201900

Friendship Road, No. 5 Mishan Road

310113

Jiading District

464 square kilometers

201800

No. 111 Bole South Road, Xin Cheng Road

310114
Jinshan District

611 square kilometers

200540

Shanyang Town Jinshan Road 2000

310116

Songjiang District

605 square kilometers

201699

Fang Song Street Park Road No. 1

310117

Qingpu District

676 square kilometers

201799

Xia Yang Street Park Road 100

310118

Fengxian District

687 square kilometers

201499

South Town, the liberation of East Road, No. 120

310120

Chongming District

1411 square kilometers

202150

City Road Town People 's Road No. 68

310151

enclave

In addition to the above administrative areas, Shanghai in Zhejiang Province , Jiangsu Province and Anhui Province, there are still administrative under the jurisdiction of the four enclaves of Shanghai .

1, Shanghai Yangshan deep-water port , belonging to Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province Shengsi County rugged archipelago, by the large, small Yangshan dozens of islands.

2, Shanghai Dafeng Farm , in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, the central area of Dafeng District, during the Cultural Revolution, Shanghai has built three farmers in the placement of knowledge and detention of young workers, the most prosperous with 80,000 educated youth. Annual supply of Shanghai grain and oil and other properties.

3, Shanghai Baimingling prison , in Langxi area of Anhui Province, is imprisoned in Shanghai criminal criminals committed prisoners. The unexploded ordnance left over from the war in Shanghai was destroyed.

4, Shanghai Jun Tian Lake Prison , located in Xuancheng City, Anhui Province, about 20 km southwest, about 318 km from Shanghai, 318 National Road, Shen Su Zhejiang and Anhui high speed from the north through. [29] 

Shanghai night viewShanghai night view

population

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The quantity and quality of a certain time and space are the basic elements of historical development, and the study of Shanghai can not but study the "people" of Shanghai. Shanghai is an immigrant city, in the long history of the development process, with its unique conditions, to attract the parties, from a sea town into the world metropolis. Studying the history of immigrants in Shanghai, the Song and Yuan Dynasties is an extremely important period. [30] 

Song and Yuan Dynasties

It is difficult to correctly understand the total population of Shanghai in the Song and Yuan Dynasties. Can only be based on existing historical data, through stripping analysis, for a rough estimate.

Today's Shanghai area, in the Song and Yuan Dynasties can be divided into Songjiang (including the later Shanghai County), Jiading, Chongming three blocks. Shi Zhizhong, Songjiang statistics are more complete; Jiading County after the data is also full; Chongming only the middle of the Yuan Dynasty after the statistics. However, the middle of the Yuan Dynasty before the Chongming population, Jiading County, the number of accounts before the county can be calculated according to Kunshan County. Chunyu "Yufeng Chi" and Jiajing "Kunshan County" recorded in Kunshan County, the number of accounts, the Northern Song Dynasty Daxiang Xiangli years for the 16348, the Southern Song Dynasty Qingyuan year for the 38942; when Kunshan sub-14 townships, Jiading for its east 5 Township, can be folded Jiading area in the large and medium Xiangxiang between about 5838, Qingyuan between about 13908 households. The average conversion, according to the situation at the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty may be high, taking into account the lack of Chongming, the difference will not be too much, accordingly, the Shanghai area in the Song and Yuan Dynasties households as the unit population, the early Northern Song Dynasty about 60799, The middle of about 272520 households, Ming Hongwu 24 years about 350329 [30] 

The unit is because the number of records is not credible, the ancient Chinese population statistics to accommodate the number of mouth for the object, can not history as the total number of mouth. Such as Shaoxi "cloud blog" is only recorded in the "home", the customer on the leak; that is, according to their recorded in the early Northern Song Dynasty 103143, households are only 1.88 people, obviously too low; Yuanfeng households are only 2.17 people, the Yuan Dynasty households are more than 4 to 5 people, Hongwu 24 years Chongming households are the highest 6.06 people. In the early years of the Southern Song Dynasty, Huating salt supervised the yellow in the "on strike Huating company-like" in the "people to the family of ten dollars", reflecting the industry salt booth households are 10; according to " Fuchu epitaph ", the tomb of Huang Junju this Takahashi, its home" V regardless of "," will be often on the cafeteria mouth, "is the mouth of the family. Household data vary widely, need to carefully study and confirm.

Ting family by the official control, freedom than farmers, less households, the average number may be larger; Huang Mu class like the family will not be too much, but these large officials and their family slaves, , Will be set for the Song and Yuan households are 8, is never too high. At the end of the Song Dynasty Xie Fang in the "Xie Liu pure father Huimu" poem, "kapok received thousands of strains, eight do not worry poor" sentence, although it is false, but reflects the actual, very reference. Accordingly, the total population of the Shanghai area in the Northern Song Dynasty between the large and medium Xiangxiang about 486,000, the Yuan Dynasty to 27 yuan about 218 million, Ming Hongwu 24 years about 280.2 million.

From the Northern Song Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty less than 400 years, the Shanghai population growth of nearly 5 times, much higher than the national growth rate over the same period. According to Liang Fangzhong's "Chinese history account, field, field statistics", the number of households in the north of the North Song Bao 9 years for the 3090504 households, Ming Hongwu 24 years for the 10684435 households, 400 years, 2.45 times, only the growth rate in Shanghai 51.47%. Obviously, the immigration of a large number of immigrants, the rapid growth of the population in Shanghai during the period the main reason. [30] 

Latest statistics

Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Statistics released the latest statistical bulletin shows that by the end of 2015 the total population of Shanghai 24,152,700 people, compared to the end of 2014 to reduce 104,100 people.

Statistics show that by the end of 2015, Shanghai resident resident population of 14,336,200 people, foreign resident population of 981.65 million people. Compared to the end of 2014, foreign resident population decreased by 147.7 million, down 1.5% year on year. [31] 

By the end of 2016, the city's total population of 24.197 million people. Among them, the resident population of 1439.50 million people, foreign resident population of 980.20 million people. The resident population was 21.84 million, the birth rate was 9.0 ‰; the death rate was 120,000 people, the mortality rate was 5.0 ‰; the natural population growth rate was 4.0 ‰. The annual resident population was 12.92 million people, the birth rate was 9.0 ‰, the death rate was 114,000, the mortality rate was 7.9 ‰, and the natural population growth rate was 1.1 ‰. [13] 

City areaPopulation / million people (population at the end of 2014)

Huangpu District

68.20

Xuhui District

110.97

Changning District

69.86

Jing'an District

109.70

Putuo District

129.61

Hongkou District

83.82

Yangpu District

132.37

Pudong New Area

545.12

Minhang District

250.80

Baoshan District

202.40

Jiading District

156.62

Jinshan District

79.71

Songjiang District

175.59

Qingpu District

120.83

Fengxian District

116.76

Chongming District

70.16

economic

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Summary

Northern Song Dynasty , the establishment of special institutions in Shanghai levy wine tax. Southern Song Jing Ding , Xian Chun years, the Shanghai region of rice and cotton cultivation, fishing silk, cotton textile industry is increasingly developed , merchants gathered in Shanghai town set up the city to mention the Secretary and the freight yard. Yuan Dynasty, Shanghai County, "the annual grain of ten million more than ten thousand stone, wine and vinegar tax billions of more than 1,500 ingots." At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, the black mud Jing people Huang Daowao reform textile technology , promote cotton cultivation and cotton handicraft industry development. Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Shanghai region of cotton sold throughout the country, "kapok, Wen Ling, clothing is the world," said.

1966 ~ 1976, due to " Cultural Revolution ", a large number of factory production affected, the management system seriously damaged, product quality decline, energy and raw material consumption increased, the level of production technology stagnant. Shanghai's overall economic development level and the international advanced level gap widened, the proportion of the national economy imbalance, the economic decline of enterprises, urban municipal construction development is slow. At the same time, new technologies, new materials, new products, new technology development has made progress in Jiangsu , Anhui , Shandong construction of a number of raw materials base, the construction of Shanghai Petrochemical Plant a project successful trial ground satellite receiving stations, large-scale carrier Rocket and so on.

In 1990, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council decided to develop and open Pudong, Pudong in the implementation of economic and technological development zones and special economic zones policy. In October 1992, the report of the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that "the Shanghai Pudong development and opening up as a leader, and further open the Yangtze River coastal cities, as soon as possible to build Shanghai into one of the international economic, financial and trade centers to drive the Yangtze River Delta and the Yangtze River Valley region A new leap in the economy. " In the spring of 1992, when Deng Xiaoping's southern tour made a speech, "Shanghai people are relatively smooth, this is an infinite power. Now fully qualified to do a little faster", "see the prospective, boldly try, boldly break" The Shanghai's economy and urban construction have grown at an unprecedented rate. [32] 

Preliminary accounting, the city's GDP in 2016 completed 27466.15 billion yuan, calculated at comparable prices, up 6.8% over the previous year, the growth rate down 0.1 percentage points over the previous year. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 10.947 billion yuan, down 6.6%; the added value of the secondary industry was 799.434 billion yuan, up by 1.2 percent; the tertiary industry added value of 1936.234 billion yuan, up 9.5 percent. The added value of the tertiary industry accounted for 70.5% of the city's GDP, up 2.7 percentage points over the previous year.

From the major industries, the annual industrial added value of 714.502 billion yuan, up 1.0% over the previous year; wholesale and retail added value of 403.243 billion yuan, an increase of 4.6%; transportation, storage and postal industry value of 113.027 billion yuan, an increase of 6.3 The added value of accommodation and catering industry is 38.8 billion yuan, up by 0.6%; the added value of financial industry is 472.65 billion yuan, up by 12.8%; the added value of real estate is 212.478 billion yuan, up by 4.5%; the information transmission, software and information technology services Worth 1618.58 billion yuan, an increase of 15.1%. [33] 

agriculture

In 2015, the city's total agricultural output value of 28.784 billion yuan, down 12.7% over the previous year. Cultivated industry 14.41 billion yuan, down 16.7%; forestry 12.19 billion yuan, up 33.7%; animal husbandry 6.423 billion yuan, down 11.4%; fishery 5.449 billion yuan, down 10.7%; agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services 1.104 billion yuan, 7.5%. Outside the city of Shanghai to achieve agricultural output value of 2.484 billion yuan, an increase of 12.6%. To the end of the year, the city has 1631 enterprises, 7590 products were "three products a standard" agricultural certification. Among them, the green food certificate using 191 enterprises, green food 275; pollution-free agricultural products using 1432 enterprises, pollution-free agricultural products 7289. [34] 

industry

After 1958, Shanghai industry in addition to the city's large industrial, the formation of suburban township industry, urban industry and urban areas of industry. To the late 1970s, become an important part of Shanghai industry. By the 1990s, industrial output accounted for 1/3 of Shanghai's total industrial output value.

In 1958, the people's commune , the " Great Leap Forward " movement, the senior agricultural production cooperatives iron wood, wood, sewing and other workshops, workshops and decentralized urban handicraft cooperatives composed of various people's commune industrial enterprises, while people's commune new brick, Soil pesticide fertilizer and other small factories and workshops, began to form a social team to do industry. In 1958, the Shanghai Municipal People's Commune community 2698 industrial enterprises, employing 107,700 people, the total output value of 89.88 million yuan.

August 1958, the suburbs of 10 counties have handicraft cooperatives, group 668; employing 47,000 people, mostly for the original handicraft industry. In addition, more than 20,000 people are still engaged in the state-owned and cooperative factories, more than 20,000 people with the corporate decentralization of the commune, the remaining 0.5 million people still engaged in handicraft cooperatives, the development of handicraft industry, began to form the town industry.

In 1958, the streets of Shanghai, the use of social labor and housing, run in the production group and Lane Lane service group. Started in the production group of 7667, 299,000 family women to participate in large industrial processing clothing, paper boxes and so on. Began to form the production industry in the Lane.

After 1979, the community industry, urban industry, street factory industry combined with their own problems, the face of the planned economy to the market economy transition situation, from the rectification to start, adjust the product, industrial structure, the development of marketable light, Hand products. To carry out cultural and technical education and training of workers, improve the quality of the introduction of technical personnel . To carry out product quality upgrades, excellence, standardization, improve product quality, catch up with the advanced level at home and abroad. Organizations to develop new products and product upgrading. Strengthen enterprise management and enterprise reform, change enterprise mechanism. Development and municipal large industrial economic joint and tertiary institutions, scientific research institutions technical cooperation, improve the level of enterprise technology management and product technology content, strengthen the strength of enterprises. From the "three to a fill" (processing, sample production, to pieces of assembly and compensation trade) started, the development of foreign-funded enterprises, increase investment, the introduction of foreign advanced technology and equipment, the development of export-oriented production. Set up group-oriented enterprises, enhance market competitiveness, improve the scale of business efficiency. Deepening enterprise reform, the implementation of a variety of operating responsibility system, the community industry, urban industry and street factories industrial collective ownership began to set up joint venture, Sino-foreign joint ventures, sole proprietorship, group, joint stock cooperative system diversified development. And according to the overall development plan of Shanghai city, adjust the industrial layout, the development of industrial parks, into the Shanghai national economic plan development track.

In 1995, there were 341 collective industrial enterprises in the county, employing 74,800 people, the original value of fixed assets of 1.836 billion yuan, the total output value of 4.224 billion yuan. There are 24 industrial categories, 151 sub-categories, garment industry, general machinery manufacturing, electrical machinery and equipment industry 3 industry output value of the first, accounting for the county area of collective industrial output value of 41.3%. There are 18 large and medium-sized enterprises, 35 foreign-funded enterprises. Operating output value of export products production enterprises reached 14.31 billion yuan, accounting for 33.8% of total industrial output value. The implementation of 26 joint-stock cooperative enterprises, 20 leasing enterprises, 14 mergers and acquisitions, corporate restructuring of 11 enterprises, the overall or part of the equity transfer 16, closed, bankruptcy, custody and other 84. County is a collective industrial production potential is insufficient, the economic burden increased, debt ratio is high, facing many difficulties. [35] 

In 2015, the industrial added value of 710.994 billion yuan, up 0.5% over the previous year. Annual industrial output value of 33211.57 billion yuan, down 0.5%, of which the scale of industrial output value of 3104.497 billion yuan, down 0.8%. In the above-scale industrial output value, the state-owned enterprises held 115.2827 billion yuan, an increase of 0.7%. [34] 

financial

Before the liberation, Shanghai was the first financial center of the Far East , regardless of stock , gold, foreign exchange and other financial markets all ranked first in Asia . Shanghai is the world's second largest futures trading center, second only to Chicago ; the world's largest gold spot trading center; the world's second largest diamond spot trading center, one of the world's three major non-ferrous metal pricing center. However, after the public-private partnership in 1956 , all capital markets were closed. In 1987 to resume operation of Bank of Communications

Pudong New Area

Pudong New Area (5 photos)

 As well as the 1990 Shanghai Stock Exchange re-established as a sign, the financial market began to recover. The People 's Bank of China set up Shanghai' s deputy headquarters in 2005. In 2009, Shanghai launched the RMB international settlement pilot.

Shanghai is China's financial center , Shanghai, almost all of China's financial market elements include: Shanghai Stock Exchange, Futures Exchange , China Financial Exchange, Shanghai Diamond Exchange , Gold Exchange, Financial Derivatives Exchange, inter-bank bonds market , China Foreign Exchange Trade Center, the Chinese capital market lending, national operations center gold reserves, foreign exchange reserves operations center, Shanghai clearing House (Chinese people's Bank clearing Centre of the total), China people's Bank of Shanghai headquarters (central bank credit system center, check section stream data processing center), the four major Chinese banks (Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, ICBC, China construction Bank) headquarters in Shanghai, the major foreign banks in the Greater China headquarters, China Anti-money laundering between funding the monitoring center, the Shanghai interbank Offered rate, China Insurance Exchange.

Taxation

After the liberation of Shanghai, the finance taken from the people, with the people. In June 1949, the Shanghai Municipal People's Government Finance Bureau, the Direct Tax Bureau and the Commodity Tax Bureau were set up to exercise the functions of the government to manage fiscal and taxation. In October, the establishment of Shanghai budget estimates. In 1950, according to the national financial and unified requirements, Shanghai's fiscal revenue into the national budget. In 1952, according to the principle of "unified leadership, hierarchical management", the establishment of the annual budget of Shanghai. June 1949 ~ 1995, Shanghai local fiscal revenue total 533.925 billion yuan. Among them, from 1949 to 1978 accounted for 36.62% of the total, accounting for 63.38% from 1979 to 1995; tax revenue